File Name: buddhas and kami in japan .zip
The Japanese word kami is usually translated as god, however, it is often claimed that the word kami and the English word god are quite different concepts.
Buddhas and Kami in Japan - Ebook
Each sect was organized into a religious body by either a founder or a systematizer. It has no formal organizational structure nor doctrinal formulation but is centred in the veneration of small roadside images and in the agricultural rites of rural families.
Much remains unknown about religion in Japan during the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages. Among the primary Yayoi religious phenomena were agricultural rites and shamanism. In ancient times small states were gradually formed at various places. By the middle of the 4th century ce , a nation with an ancestor of the present Imperial Household as its head had probably been established.
The prayer for good harvest in spring and the harvest ceremony in autumn were two major festivals honouring the ujigami. Divination , water purification , and lustration ceremonial purification , which are all mentioned in the Japanese classics, became popular, and people started to build shrines for their kami. People found kami in nature, which ruled seas or mountains, as well as in outstanding men. They also believed in kami of ideas such as growth, creation, and judgment.
Though each clan made the tutelary kami the core of its unity, such kami were not necessarily the ancestral deities of the clan. Sometimes kami of nature and kami of ideas were regarded as their tutelary kami. The other view was a two-dimensional one in which this world and the Perpetual Country Tokoyo, a utopian place far beyond the sea existed in horizontal order.
Though the three-dimensional view of the world which is also characteristic of North Siberian and Mongolian shamanistic culture became the representative view observed in Japanese myths , the two-dimensional view of the world which is also present in Southeast Asian culture was dominant among the populace. Confucianism , which originated in China, is believed to have reached Japan in the 5th century ce , and by the 7th century it had spread among the people, together with Daoism and yinyang harmony of two basic forces of nature philosophy.
Myths of various clans were combined and reorganized into a pan-Japanese mythology with the Imperial Household as its centre. The kami of the Imperial Household and the tutelary kami of powerful clans became the kami of the whole nation and people, and offerings were made by the state every year. Such practices were systematized supposedly around the start of the Taika-era reforms in By the beginning of the 10th century, about 3, shrines throughout Japan were receiving state offerings.
As the power of the central government declined, however, the system ceased to be effective, and after the 13th century only a limited number of important shrines continued to receive the Imperial offerings.
Later, after the Meiji Restoration in , the old system was revived. Buddhism was officially introduced into Japan in ce and developed gradually. Help was therefore offered to kami in the form of Buddhist discipline. By the late 8th century, kami were thought to be avatars incarnations of buddhas enlightened individuals who had attained liberation [ moksha ] from samsara and bodhisattvas buddhas-to-be.
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Access options available:. Edited by Mark Teeuwen and Fabio Rambelli. RoutledgeCurzon, London, I suspect my approach may be fairly typical, and it certainly is convenient. Buddhism may be more complex, but its basic principles are not that difficult to grasp. Japanese Buddhism, moreover, offers a neat sequence of patriarchs and their sects that are easily parsed to help beginners keep track of them. At the introductory level, this approach seems to work reasonably well.
Each sect was organized into a religious body by either a founder or a systematizer. It has no formal organizational structure nor doctrinal formulation but is centred in the veneration of small roadside images and in the agricultural rites of rural families. Much remains unknown about religion in Japan during the Paleolithic and Neolithic ages. Among the primary Yayoi religious phenomena were agricultural rites and shamanism. In ancient times small states were gradually formed at various places.
The Journal of Japanese Studies
This volume offers a multidisciplinary approach to the combinatory tradition that dominated premodern and early modern Japanese religion, known as honji suijaku originals and their traces. It questions received, simplified accounts of the interactions between Shinto and Japanese Buddhism, and presents a more dynamic and variegated religious world, one in which the deities' Buddhist originals and local traces did not constitute one-to-one associations, but complex combinations of multiple deities based on semiotic operations, doctrines, myths, and legends. The book's essays, all based on specific case studies, discuss the honji suijaku paradigm from a number of different perspectives, always integrating historical and doctrinal analysis with interpretive insights.
The theory was never systematized but was nonetheless very pervasive and very influential. The term honji suijaku itself is an example of the Japanese practice of Yojijukugo , a four-character combination of phrases which can be read literally or idiomatically. Early Buddhist monks did not doubt the existence of kami but saw them as inferior to their buddhas.
This volume offers a multidisciplinary approach to the combinatory tradition that dominated premodern and early modern Japanese religion, known as honji suijaku originals and their traces. It questions received, simplified accounts of the interactions between Shinto and Japanese Buddhism, and presents a more dynamic and variegated religious world, one in which the deities' Buddhist originals and local traces did not constitute one-to-one associations, but complex combinations of multiple deities based on semiotic operations, doctrines, myths, and legends. The book's essays, all based on specific case studies, discuss the honji suijaku paradigm from a number of different perspectives, always integrating historical and doctrinal analysis with interpretive insights. Sign up to our newsletter and receive discounts and inspiration for your next reading experience. We a good story. Quick delivery in the UK. Trusted Ecommerce Europe.
Se alle arbeider i Cristin. The transformations Buddhism has been undergoing in the modern age have inspired much research over the last decade. The main focus of attention has been the phenomenon known as Buddhist modernism, which is defined as a conscious attempt to adjust Buddhist teachings and practices in conformity with the modern norms of rationality, science, or gender equality. This book advances research on Buddhist modernism by attempting to clarify the highly diverse ways in which Buddhist faith, thought, and practice have developed in the modern age, both in Buddhist heartlands in Asia and in the West. It presents a collection of case studies that, taken together, demonstrate how Buddhist traditions interact with modern phenomena such as colonialism and militarism, the market economy, global interconnectedness, the institutionalization of gender equality, and recent historical events such as de-industrialization and the socio-cultural crisis in post-Soviet Buddhist areas. This volume shows how the re invention of traditions constitutes an important pathway in the development of Buddhist modernities and emphasizes the pluralistic diversity of these forms in different settings.
Table of contents
Zen and Comparative Studies pp Cite as. It is inevitably necessary, for understanding Japanese culture, to have a sufficient understanding of Japanese religions, especially Shinto and Buddhism. This is somewhat similar to the case of Western culture, which can be understood well only with a good understanding of Hellenism and Judeo-Christian tradition. Western culture has developed like a rope closely interwoven with two strands — Hellenism and Judeo-Christian tradition. Similarly, Japanese culture has developed in such a way that Shinto and Buddhism have been closely interwoven, although Confucianism has also played an important part; and, after the Meiji Restoration , the introduction of Western culture and civilization into Japan has been still another element. In Western culture, Hellenism and JudeoChristian tradition, and in Japan, Shinto and Buddhism have been the two main sources upon which each culture has been built up. As for the comparison between Western and Japanese cultures, however, I will not say more than this.
It is a yojijukugo phrase. However, the tendency to oppose Buddhism as a foreign import and to uphold Shinto as the native religion can be seen already during the early modern era, partly as a nationalistic reaction. This order triggered the haibutsu kishaku , a violent anti-Buddhist movement that caused the forcible closure of thousands of temples, the confiscation of their land, the forced return of many monks to lay life or their transformation into Shinto priests, and the destruction of numerous books, statues and other Buddhist artefacts. The new government that seized power in saw shinbutsu bunri as a way to reduce the immense wealth and power of the Buddhist sects. At the same time, it was supposed to give Shinto, and especially its cult of the Emperor, time to grow into an effective vehicle for nationalism. The campaign ultimately failed to destroy the influence of Buddhism on the Japanese people, who still needed funerals, graves and ancestral rites,  all services traditionally provided by Buddhism. The state's first attempt to influence religious life therefore resulted in failure.
Religion in Contemporary Japan pp Cite as. Situation and circumstance are intrinsic elements in the Japanese religious world, amply demonstrating its populist, pragmatic and ethnic orientations relevant to the Japanese people, their life styles, needs and environment in this world. All these elements have their roots in the enduring Japanese folk religious tradition that was based originally in a primarily agricultural society in which such actions as cyclical observances and rituals, petitions to deities for good harvests, concern for the spirits of the dead and their potential for malevolent actions against the living, and beliefs in the powers of the spiritual world to help or hinder humans in their pursuit of happiness in this life were paramount, but which continues to exert its influences in contemporary, industrialised Japan. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
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This theory, created and developed mostly by Tendai monks, was never systematized, but was nonetheless very pervasive and very influential. Divided in ten volumes and 50 chapters, it supports the Tendai and Ise Shinto honji suijaku theory according to which Japanese kami were simply local manifestations of the Indian gods of Buddhism. This theory was never systematized, but became nonetheless the most important tool through which foreign Buddhism was reconciled with local kami beliefs.
Edited by Mark Teeuwen and Fabio Rambelli. RoutledgeCurzon, London, I suspect my approach may be fairly typical, and it certainly is convenient.
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