File Name: bernstein elaborated and restricted codes .zip
Bernstein's Sociolinguistic Codes
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Bibliographie de Basil Bernstein
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Terms introduced by the British sociologist Basil Bernstein in the s, referring to two varieties or codes of language use, seen as part of a general theory of the nature of social systems and social rules. The elaborated code was said to be used in relatively formal, educated situations, permitting people to be reasonably creative in their expression and to use a range of linguistic alternatives. It was thought to be characterized by a fairly high proportion of such features as subordinate clauses, adjectives, the pronoun I and passives. By contrast, the restricted code was thought to be used in relatively informal situations, stressing the speaker's membership of a group, relying on context for its meaningfulness, and lacking stylistic range. Linguistically it is highly predictable, with a fairly high proportion of pronouns, tag questions, and the use of gestures and intonation to convey meaning.
A concept introduced by the English sociologist Basil Bernstein — to denote an informal use of language, linked to immediate situations context bound , with a reduced semantic and syntactic range, supposedly characteristic of lower-working-class speakers, in contrast to middle-class speakers who have access to both a restricted and an elaborated code. The theory is often reduced to the proposition that, owing to differences in the linguistic resources available to them, middle-class people are capable of abstract reasoning, whereas lower-working-class people are not; but Bernstein argued vigorously against this interpretation. Bernstein first drew attention to social class differences in language in an article in the British Journal of Sociology in , and he developed the concept further in two articles in the journal Language and Speech in and in numerous subsequent publications. Subjects: Science and technology — Psychology. All Rights Reserved.
The construct of elaborated and restricted language codes was introduced by Basil Bernstein in , as a way of accounting for the relatively poor performance of working-class pupils on language-based subjects, when they were achieving as well as their middle-class counterparts on mathematical topics. Interestingly, it was stimulated directly by his experience of teaching in further education. Some said things like:.
Basil Bernard Bernstein 1 November — 24 September  was a British sociologist known for his work in the sociology of education. He worked on socio-linguistics and the connection between the manner of speaking and social organization. Bernstein made a significant contribution to the study of communication with his sociolinguistic theory of language codes, which was developed to explain inequalities based on social class as found in language use. The term code , as defined by Stephen Littlejohn in Theories of Human Communication , "refers to a set of organizing principles behind the language employed by members of a social group" suggests that Bernstein's theory shows how the language people use in everyday conversation both reflects and shapes the assumptions of a certain social group. Language, for Bernstein, is critical since it serves as the intermediary of social structure in the general theory of cultural transmission.
Basil Bernstein makes a significant contribution to the study of Communication with his sociolinguistic theory of language codes. Within the broader category of language codes are elaborated and restricted codes.
Одна и та же картинка смотрела на него со всех двенадцати мониторов наподобие какого-то извращенного балета. Вцепившись руками в спинку стула, Бринкерхофф в ужасе смотрел на экраны. - Чед? - услышал он голос у себя за спиной.
Стратмор убил Чатрукьяна. Я видел это своими глазами. Его слова не сразу дошли до ее сознания.
Ну и. Для того и предназначен этот переключатель, верно. Мидж покачала головой.
Приходи поиграть. - На улице еще темно, - засмеялся. - А-ах, - сладко потянулась .
А это не так? - спросил Беккер холодно, глядя на ее припухший локоть.
Скорее всего это игры Стратмора: он мудро решил не впутывать в это дело агентство. - Фильтры Протокола передачи файлов выходят из строя! - крикнул кто-то из технического персонала. - Нам нужен этот предмет, - сказал Фонтейн. - Где сейчас находится Халохот. Смит бросил взгляд через плечо.