types of pollution and its effects and its causes pdf

Types Of Pollution And Its Effects And Its Causes Pdf

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When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of. Essentially, pollution occurs when substances are introduced to the environment that have harmful effects, damaging the quality of land, water, and air.

The planet keeps nudging us with increasingly extreme droughts, reminding us that water is life. It is an essential resource upon which all living beings depend and it is crucial to all social and economic development, as well as energy production and adaptation to climate change. Nevertheless, we are now facing a gigantic challenge. How do we stop contaminating our rivers, seas, oceans, canals, lakes and reservoirs?

Water pollution

The planet keeps nudging us with increasingly extreme droughts, reminding us that water is life. It is an essential resource upon which all living beings depend and it is crucial to all social and economic development, as well as energy production and adaptation to climate change. Nevertheless, we are now facing a gigantic challenge. How do we stop contaminating our rivers, seas, oceans, canals, lakes and reservoirs?

Water pollution is endangering the health of millions of people around the world. The waters of the River Ganges flow clear and clean through the Indian city of Rishikesh at the gateway to the Himalayas.

In these mountains, nobody would guess that this water will be transformed into one of the most heavily polluted rivers in the world, with faecal bacteria levels up to 31 million per millilitres. This is according to reports from Sankat Mochan Foundation, an organisation struggling to restore the Ganges to its former glory. These levels mean that the sacred river has become synonymous with water pollution, a worldwide problem affecting one in every three people on the planet, according to the United Nations UN.

The World Health Organisation WHO says that polluted water is water whose composition has been changed to the extent that it is unusable. In other words, it is toxic water that cannot be drunk or used for essential purposes like agriculture, and which also causes diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid and poliomyelitis that kill more than , people worldwide every year.

The main water pollutants include bacteria, viruses, parasites, fertilisers, pesticides, pharmaceutical products, nitrates, phosphates, plastics , faecal waste and even radioactive substances. These substances do not always change the colour of the water, meaning that they are often invisible pollutants. That's why small amounts of water and aquatic organisms are tested to determine water quality.

It is sometimes caused by nature, such as when mercury filters from the Earth's crust, polluting oceans, rivers, lakes, canals and reservoirs. However, the most common cause of poor quality water is human activity and its consequences, which we will now go on to explain:.

Rising global temperatures caused by CO 2 emissions heat the water, reducing its oxygen content. Felling forests can exhaust water resources and generate organic residue which becomes a breeding ground for harmful bacteria. Chemical dumping from these sectors is one of the main causes of eutrophication of water.

Much of the plastic pollution in the ocean comes from fishing boats, tankers and cargo shipping. The transportation and storage of oil and its derivatives is subject to leakage that pollutes our water resources. Deteriorating water quality is damaging the environment, health conditions and the global economy. The president of the World Bank, David Malpass, warns of the economic impact: "Deteriorating water quality is stalling economic growth and exacerbating poverty in many countries".

The explanation is that, when biological oxygen demand — the indicator that measures the organic pollution found in water — exceeds a certain threshold, the growth in the Gross Domestic Product GDP of the regions within the associated water basins falls by a third.

In addition, here are some of the other consequences:. The impact of water pollution. Half of the world's inhabitants will live in water-scarce areas by , so every drop of polluted water today is an irreparable loss for tomorrow. That's why we must prevent water pollution with measures like the following:. Skip to main content.

Share in Twitter. Share in Facebook. Whatsapp Whatsapp. Water pollution: how to protect our source of life The planet keeps nudging us with increasingly extreme droughts, reminding us that water is life. Carousel of images and videos. Deforestation Felling forests can exhaust water resources and generate organic residue which becomes a breeding ground for harmful bacteria.

Industry, agriculture and livestock farming Chemical dumping from these sectors is one of the main causes of eutrophication of water.

Maritime traffic Much of the plastic pollution in the ocean comes from fishing boats, tankers and cargo shipping. Fuel spillages The transportation and storage of oil and its derivatives is subject to leakage that pollutes our water resources.

In addition, here are some of the other consequences: Destruction of biodiversity. Water pollution depletes aquatic ecosystems and triggers unbridled proliferation of phytoplankton in lakes — eutrophication —. Contamination of the food chain. Fishing in polluted waters and the use of waste water for livestock farming and agriculture can introduce toxins into foods which are harmful to our health when eaten.

Lack of potable water. The UN says that billions of people around the world have no access to clean water to drink or sanitation, particularly in rural areas. The WHO estimates that about 2 billion people have no option but to drink water contaminated by excrement, exposing them to diseases such as cholera, hepatitis A and dysentery.

Infant mortality. According to the UN, diarrhoeal diseases linked to lack of hygiene cause the death of about 1, children a day worldwide. That's why we must prevent water pollution with measures like the following: Reduce CO 2 emissions to prevent global warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduce the use of chemical pesticides and nutrients on crops.

Reduce and safely treat waste water so that, as well as not polluting, it can be reused for irrigation and energy production. Restrict the use of single-use plastics that end up floating in rivers, lakes and oceans, many as microplastics.

Encourage sustainable fishing to ensure the survival of species and avoid depletion of the seas. Did you find it interesting? Subscribe to our Newsletter! I have read and accept the Newsletter's privacy policy.

TYPES , CAUSES , IMPACTS AND MANAGEMENT FOR THE HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC WELL-BEING

Pollution , also called environmental pollution , the addition of any substance solid , liquid , or gas or any form of energy such as heat , sound, or radioactivity to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution , light pollution , and plastic pollution. Pollution of all kinds can have negative effects on the environment and wildlife and often impacts human health and well-being. Pollution occurs when an amount of any substance or any form of energy is put into the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed or safely stored.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Coker Published Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed.

You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms. Many human activities pollute our environment, adversely affecting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which we grow food. In this and the next study session we will look more closely at pollution. In this session you will learn about the different types and sources of pollution and the various human activities that can cause pollution.


pollution due to urbanization and other anthropogenic substances causes soil pollution. Industrial waste: lead, cadmium, mercury, alkalies, organic substances, and chemicals. Agricultural waste: fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and manures. Discarded materials and radioactive elements and plastic bags.


What is Pollution?

The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2. Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can have direct toxic effects, or indirectly by changing soil pH followed by solubilization of toxic salts of metals like aluminum. The particulate matters have a negative mechanical effect. They cover the leaf blade reducing light penetration and blocking the opening of stomata.

Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention

Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention

You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms. Many human activities pollute our environment, adversely affecting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which we grow food.

One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans. Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic intoxication, depending on exposure.

Theory of Environmental Pollution is one among them. In this article, we have thoroughly discussed the types, causes and impacts of different pollutions affecting humankind. Kidney problems, irritation in eyes, nose and throat, asthma, hypertension and carcinogenic effects on lungs. The improvement of nutrients in water bodies causes eutrophication. Domestic waste discharge, agricultural waste, land drainage and industrial waste in a water body leads to a rapid increase in nutrients in a water body which initiates early ageing of water bodies. Environment Pollution Part2.

TYPES , CAUSES , IMPACTS AND MANAGEMENT FOR THE HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC WELL-BEING

You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms. Many human activities pollute our environment, adversely affecting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which we grow food. In this and the next study session we will look more closely at pollution.

Water pollution , the release of substances into subsurface groundwater or into lakes , streams, rivers , estuaries , and oceans to the point where the substances interfere with beneficial use of the water or with the natural functioning of ecosystems. In addition to the release of substances, such as chemicals or microorganisms, water pollution may also include the release of energy , in the form of radioactivity or heat , into bodies of water. Water pollution is the release of substances into bodies of water that makes water unsafe for human use and disrupts aquatic ecosystems. Water pollution can be caused by a plethora of different contaminants, including toxic waste , petroleum , and disease-causing microorganisms.

You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms. Many human activities pollute our environment, adversely affecting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which we grow food. In this and the next study session we will look more closely at pollution. In this session you will learn about the different types and sources of pollution and the various human activities that can cause pollution.

Study Session 7 Pollution: Types, Sources and Characteristics
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