Climate Change And Environmental Degradation Pdf
File Name: climate change and environmental degradation .zip
However, considerable uncertainties exist withregard to the extent and geographical distribution of these changes. Predicting scenarios for how climate-related environmental change may influence human societies and political systems necessarily involves an even higher degree of uncertainty. The direst predictions about the impacts of global warming warn about greatly increased risks of violent conflict over increasingly scarce resources such as freshwater and arable land.
- Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Armed Conflict
- COVID-19, Climate Change & Environmental Degradation: Key Asks for Public Sector Partners
- Climate change, environmental degradation and migration
Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Armed Conflict
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air , water and soil ; the destruction of ecosystems ; habitat destruction ; the extinction of wildlife ; and pollution. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as "the reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs". When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management. Scientists assert that human activity has pushed the earth into a sixth mass extinction event.
Soil is the biggest terrestrial carbon sink. This includes soil organic carbon, which is essentially biodiversity: microbes, fungi and invertebrates, as well as root matter and decomposing vegetation. Soil carbon stocks can be increased through appropriate land management to provide many benefits besides offsetting greenhouse gas emissions. Loss of soil organic carbon is one of the principal signs of land degradation, and land degradation is one of the leading challenges for sustainable development, biodiversity conservation, and mitigating and adapting to climate change. It is defined as a reduction or loss of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of land. In drylands, land degradation is known as desertification. When land is degraded, soil carbon can be released into the atmosphere, along with nitrous oxide, making land degradation one of the biggest contributors to climate change.
Efforts have to increase for developing strategies to address the root causes of anthropogenic climate change, as well as for building resilience for some of the most severe impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Circular Economy could be a moonshot project, helping to reduce CO 2 emissions and creating new jobs at local level, decentralised, where the goods and their users are situated. More on this Megatrend. In the EU, only a few cities do. Techniques for addressing pollution Efforts should increase for finding and implementing techniques for addressing pollution e. Some 80 million tonnes of polyethylene are produced globally, per year. Increasing resilience Climate change will amplify existing risks and create new risks for natural and human systems.
COVID-19, Climate Change & Environmental Degradation: Key Asks for Public Sector Partners
One of the most compelling reasons for studying environmental science and management is the fact that, in the view of many leading authorities, we are now experiencing an environmental crisis; indeed, many authors have claimed that the present environmental crisis is unprecedented in its magnitude, pace and severity Park Awareness of this environmental crisis has grown since the s, partly as a result of the prominence given to major so-called 'environmental' disasters such as the Sahelian droughts of the s and s and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in Consequently, a wide range of environmental problems has emerged; those problems include anthropogenic climate change 'global warming' , the depletion of stratospheric ozone the 'ozone hole' , the acidification of surface waters 'acid rain' , the destruction of tropical forests, the depletion and extinction of species, and the precipitous decline of biodiversity. Yet, while all of these problems have physical environmental manifestations, their causes - and their potential solutions - are invariably bound up with human attitudes, beliefs, values, needs, desires, expectations, and behaviours. Thus the symptoms of the environmental crisis cannot be regarded purely as physical problems requiring solutions by environmental 'specialists'; instead, they are intrinsically human problems and they are intimately related to the question of what it means to be human. At this point, a very brief overview of the environmental crisis may be helpful. It is important to emphasise that a wide range of views about the nature and severity of the current environmental crisis exists, and some of the issues are highly controversial.
Climate change, environmental degradation and migration
A J McMichael and colleagues discuss the resulting unequal effects on health and set out strategies to help prevent and lessen the harm. These systems are intrinsic to life processes and fundamental to human health, and their disruption and depletion make it more difficult to tackle health inequalities. Indeed, we will not achieve the UN millennium development health goals if environmental destruction continues. The goals seek reductions in poverty, illiteracy, sex inequality, malnutrition, child deaths, maternal mortality, and major infections as well creation of environmental stability and a global partnership for development. Poverty cannot be eliminated while environmental degradation exacerbates malnutrition, disease, and injury.
Climate change will have a progressively increasing impact on environmental degradation and environmentally dependent socio-economic systems with potential to cause substantial population displacement. The key concerns in Less Developed Countries LDCs will include serious threats to food security and health, considerable economic decline, inundation of coastal areas, and degradation of land and fresh water resources Reuveny in Polit Geogr, However, we know little about the interplay between environmental change and stresses on ecological systems, resulting socio-economic vulnerability and potential outcomes in terms of population displacement or induced migration. So far these relationships are poorly conceptualized, lack systematic investigation, and are reduced to simplistic causal explanations. When people are faced with severe environmental degradation they have one of three options: 1 stay and adapt to mitigate the effects; 2 stay, do nothing and accept a lower quality of life; or 3 leave the affected area.
We see climate change everywhere — in weather patterns, across farmland, throughout plant and animal habitats.
Peer-reviewed Journal Article
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