expansion and consolidation of british rule in india pdf

Expansion And Consolidation Of British Rule In India Pdf

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Political warfare in British colonial India aided a British minority in maintaining control over large parts of present-day India , Bangladesh , Pakistan and Burma. The East India Company obtained a foothold in India in and from that start expanded the territory it controlled until it was the primary power in the subcontinent. The Company lost all its administrative powers; its Indian possessions, including its armed forces, were taken over by the Crown pursuant to the provisions of the Government of India Act

Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in , London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean. Permission was granted and in , three ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. In , three more ships sailed east but were all lost at sea.

Expansion and Consolidation of British Power in India

The British East India Company slowly and gradually expanded its trading activities in India by getting permission from the then ruling powers, the Mughals and the local rulers. The British East India Company in its desire to become a political power realized that it had to eliminate the other European companies from trading activity and so obtained permission to build forts and to improve its military strength. After making thorough preparations, the British East India Company acquired its foothold firmly in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa by its victories in the battles of Plassey and Buxar Since then, the British East India Company adopted a threefold strategy of ideological, military and colonial administrative apparatus to expand and consolidate the British Indian Empire. Now, let us understand how the British East India Company tried to justify its policy of acquiring political power through its ideological bases of mercantilism, orientalism, utilitarianism and evangelicalism. The British were not just crude blood-thirsty annexationists or conquerors like the Arabs and the Turks. The British who came to India as traders, in course of time realized that in order to obtain the optimum profits from Indian trade, they have to secure political power, backed by force.

Expansion and consolidation of British power in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

In — he led the forces of the East India Company against a strong coalition of native states and the French. In the end, the well-organized British coalition held its own, while France lost her influence in India. In , he was accused of corruption and impeached , but after a long trial he was acquitted in He was made a Privy Councillor in Hastings was born in Churchill, Oxfordshire in to a poor gentleman father, Penystone Hastings, and a mother, Hester Hastings, who died soon after he was born. It was relinquished after there had been a considerable loss of family wealth due to support given to Charles I. While there he gained further experience in the politics of East India.

British raj , period of direct British rule over the Indian subcontinent from until the independence of India and Pakistan in The raj succeeded management of the subcontinent by the British East India Company , after general distrust and dissatisfaction with company leadership resulted in a widespread mutiny of sepoy troops in , causing the British to reconsider the structure of governance in India. The raj was intended to increase Indian participation in governance, but the powerlessness of Indians to determine their own future without the consent of the British led to an increasingly adamant national independence movement. Though trade with India had been highly valued by Europeans since ancient times, the long route between them was subject to many potential obstacles and obfuscations from middlemen, making trade unsafe, unreliable, and expensive. This was especially true after the collapse of the Mongol empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire all but blocked the ancient Silk Road. As Europeans, led by the Portuguese, began to explore maritime navigation routes to bypass middlemen, the distance of the venture required merchants to set up fortified posts. The British entrusted this task to the East India Company, which initially established itself in India by obtaining permission from local authorities to own land, fortify its holdings, and conduct trade duty-free in mutually beneficial relationships.

This article will help candidates understand the expansion and consolidation of British rule in India. The British who came to India for trade eventually became the political master of India. From Battle of Plassey to annexation of Punjab in , the entire Indian sub-continent had been brought under British control. Apart from outright wars they employed methods like Subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse to expand and consolidate their empire in India. Conquest of Bengal. This Farman granted English East India Company freedom to export and import their goods in Bengal without paying taxes. Battle of Plassey

Political warfare in British colonial India

In , the East India Company was originally chartered to trade basic commodities such as silk, tea, salt, opium, and spices from India. Over time, the East India company radically transformed itself from a trading company into an entity that controlled India's massive empire. The British effectively ruled the sub-continent for almost two centuries, from the s until , with relatively little opposition and unrest.

Hired by the EIC to return a second time to India, Clive conspired to secure the company's trade interests by overthrowing the ruler of Bengal, the richest state in India. Clive's actions on behalf of the EIC have made him one of Britain's most controversial colonial figures. His achievements included checking French Imperial ambitions on the Coromandel Coast and establishing EIC control over Bengal, thereby taking the first step towards establishing the British Raj, though he worked only as an agent of the East India Company, not the British government. He was vilified by his political rivals in Britain, and put on trial before Parliament where he was absolved from every charge.

A pension of Rs 1, per annum was fixed for Mir Jafar. Course of War. The treaty guaranteed peace between the two sides for twenty years.

Looking for a different module? Often described as the 'Jewel in the Crown', British India played a key role economic, strategic, military in the expansion and consolidation of British Empire.

 Вы его убили! - крикнула.  - Вы его убили! - Она бросилась к экрану, протянула к нему руки.  - Дэвид… Все пришли в смятение. Сьюзан шла вперед, повторяя это имя, ее глаза неотрывно смотрели на экран. - Дэвид! - воскликнула она, еле держась на ногах.

 - Если Северная Дакота заподозрит, что мы его ищем, он начнет паниковать и исчезнет вместе с паролем, так что никакая штурмовая группа до него не доберется. - Все произойдет, как булавочный укол, - заверила его Сьюзан.  - В тот момент, когда обнаружится его счет, маяк самоуничтожится. Танкадо даже не узнает, что мы побывали у него в гостях.

 - Ну, тогда… надеюсь, хлопот не. - Отлично.

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