journal of depression and anxiety pdf

Journal Of Depression And Anxiety Pdf

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Journal of Depression and Anxiety Disorders is an open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes comprehensive research in depression and anxiety that are two different medical conditions but they occur together most of the times.

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Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder controls. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored.

Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. This warrants further research.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The authors confirm that, for approved reasons, some access restrictions apply to the data underlying the findings.

Researchers can submit a research plan, which describes the background en methods of a proposed research question, and a request for specific data of the NESDA database to answer the research question.

Brenda Penninx: b. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors of this manuscript have read the journal's policy and have the following competing interests: ATFB reports grants from Eli Lilly, grants from Astra Zeneca, grants from Jansen, grants from Shire, personal fees as a speaker from Eli Lilly, and personal fees as a speaker from Lundbeck, outside the submitted work.

This does not alter their adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, except those mentioned in the data availability statement. Chronic pain and depression most likely have a bidirectional association: depression is a predictor of persistent pain and pain is a predictor of the persistence of depression [1] , [3] , [10].

A possible explanation is that impaired functioning caused by pain can lead to social isolation, which in turn can lead to a negative effect on depressive symptoms, and vice versa [11] , [12]. Furthermore, different brain areas, such as the amygdala and hypothalamus, play a role in both depression and pain [13] , [14]. Also, when depression and chronic pain are co-morbid, recognition and treatment of depression are less effective, as patients mostly only present their physical complaints and receive treatment accordingly [1].

Most studies up to now have only considered the relationship of pain with depression, whereas its association with anxiety disorders has been less examined. It is likely that the association of pain and anxiety is equally important, as depression and anxiety commonly appear together. Pain may cause feelings of anxiety, which in turn can make one more sensitive to pain, with persistence of the pain experience as a consequence [15]. Furthermore, anxiety disorders and chronic pain share underlying cognitive and behavioural processes, such as increased attention towards threat and anxious avoidance of physical exertion [16] , [17].

Fear avoidance can play a role in chronic pain, with the acute pain experience leading to pain catastrophising and pain-related fear which in turn will lead to greater disability and persistent pain experience [15].

Therefore, we need more comprehensive insight by studying both depression and anxiety in concert separately and as co-morbid problems with pain [18] — [20]. Another reason to study the cross-sectional relationship between depressive and anxiety disorders and pain is that pain also has a negative impact on the prognosis of psychopathology and psychiatric treatment outcome, with pain leading to more treatment resistance [2] , [21] — [23].

Pain may be a marker of a more difficult-to-treat disorder, and lead to a longer time before remission [24]. Pain is a common presenting symptom in depression and anxiety and several studies have explored this association for specific pain symptoms, such as back pain [25] — [27] or neck pain [27] , [28]. However, pain symptoms often occur in more than one location and thus may be clustered; clustering of medically unexplained physical symptoms was examined by Wessely et al.

These studies found different clusters of pain symptoms, the most prominent being musculoskeletal, gastro-intestinal, and cardio-respiratory pain. Associations were found between depressive, but mostly anxiety symptoms and cardio-respiratory pain, musculoskeletal pain and gastro-intestinal pain.

However, the strength of these associations and the correlation with pain-related disability has not yet been explored [32] — [34].

Therefore, this study will explore the association of clustered locations of pain musculoskeletal, gastro-intestinal, and cardio-respiratory with depression and anxiety, while taking severity of pain and pain-related disability into account. We will explore if severity of depressive or anxiety symptoms is associated with severity of pain and pain-related disability, and whether these associations are stronger for certain clustered pain locations.

We expect that not only a depressive disorder will have a strong association with abovementioned pain-variables, but that an anxiety disorder will show a comparably strong association, with comorbid depression and anxiety showing the strongest association. The present study used data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety NESDA : an ongoing longitudinal cohort study in which participants, recruited from the community, general practice and secondary mental health care, are monitored to investigate the long-term course and consequences of depressive and anxiety disorders.

Penninx et al. NESDA was designed to include patients with depressive and anxiety disorders at different stages of development of their disorder. In order to achieve this, participants were recruited from the community, in primary care and in specialised mental health care [35]. The sample was stratified for setting community, primary care, and specialised mental health. The disorders included dysthymia, major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and agoraphobia.

Exclusion criteria were not being fluent in Dutch and a primary diagnosis of psychotic, obsessive compulsive, bipolar or severe addiction disorder. The research protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of participating universities and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Interviews were conducted by specially trained research staff. Next to the structured interview to assess mental health, self-report questionnaires were used to assess physical health such as chronic disease, pain, and severity of mental health.

The CPG is a reliable and valid instrument for chronic pain populations and the general population [37] , [38]. The CPG is a good instrument for measuring pain-related variables and for making a hierarchical classification of pain intensity and pain-related disability. The CPG grades chronic pain using pain intensity and pain-related disability.

Pain intensity is based on the mean of the average, worst, and present pain on a scale of 0— With these scores, 5 grades of chronic pain can be calculated:. Along with the CPG, we also assessed the specific pain location. To locate the specific pain location, an inventory was made, with a self-report questionnaire, of pain symptoms in the back, neck, head, stomach, joints, chest, and face.

Participants could report one or more of these pain locations, and were asked which of these pain locations bothered them the most in the last six months. We then categorised these pain locations as musculoskeletal back, neck, head, joints, face , gastro-intestinal stomach , and cardio respiratory chest pain symptoms. Participants could report multiple pain symptoms across the categories.

The presence of a depressive or anxiety disorder was established using the CIDI. In this study, psychopathology profiles were made for each participant. A score of 0—5 refers to none to mild depressive symptoms, a score of 6—10 refers to mild severity, a score of 11—15 refers to moderate severity, and a score of 16 or higher refers to very severe depressive symptoms.

Severity of anxiety symptoms was assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory BAI [41] , which also does not include any pain items. A score of 0—9 refers to normal severity, whereas a score of 10—18 refers to mild severity, a score of 18—29 refers to moderate severity, and a score higher than 29 refers to severe anxiety symptoms [42]. Covariates were selected a priori based on previous research on the association of depression and anxiety with pain.

Socio-demographic factors included gender, age, level of education, and partner status. Furthermore, the presence of chronic diseases was taken into account as a covariate. Based on self-report during the initial interview, the presence of a chronic disease was assessed. Because medication can have an analgesic influence on pain, the use of antidepressants and other psychotropic drugs were also selected as covariates.

Also, the number of depressive episodes was taken into account as a covariate. Descriptive analyses were used to assess baseline characteristics across the total sample. To assess the associations of type of disorder with the CPG, we used multinomial logistic regression analyses. For type of disorder, the healthy control group without depression or anxiety was selected as a reference category.

In this analysis we controlled for all the covariates. We used adjusted multinomial analyses to assess the association of severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms with the outcome variable CPG, with the lowest severity category as the reference category.

Here also, having no depressive or anxiety disorder was used as a reference category. Table 1 presents the baseline characteristics of the total population. The least participants had a current depressive disorder with a mean of Most participants reported a current comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder, with a mean of almost 10 depressive episodes.

Of the participants, 5. Most participants Table 2 shows the pain characteristics, separated in no psychopathology, remitted disorder, current depressive disorder, current anxiety disorder, and current depressive and anxiety disorder.

Of the total sample and of each of the abovementioned groups, most participants had low intensity and low pain-related disability CPG1 , and pain of musculoskeletal origin. Especially when a depressive disorder is comorbid with an anxiety disorder, more participants report highly disabling and severely limiting pain CPG4. However, the confidence intervals do overlap. Therefore, four sensitivity analyses were performed, each with an other psychopathology group remitted disorder, current depressive disorder, current anxiety disorder, comorbid depression and anxiety as a reference category, in order to examine the possible differences in associations between pain and various depressive and anxiety disorder categories Tables 4 — 7.

With a current depressive disorder or anxiety disorder as reference group, the results show no significant differences between these disorders on the CPG. A current anxiety disorder and a current depressive disorder also show no significant difference with a remitted disorder. Only a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder had a significantly higher association with the CPG compared to a remitted, current depressive, and current anxiety disorder.

These findings were similar to those in the analysis with the reference group of healthy controls. The unadjusted results did not differ from the adjusted results. This analysis showed that the association between type of disorder and CPG mostly remains: as can be seen in table 8 , all associations became less strong after combining CPG0 and CPG1 as a reference category, but remained significant. Similar to the main finding, as the severity of the depressive symptoms increases, the odds of having highly disabling and severely limiting pain increases as well.

The same accounts for the association between severity of anxiety symptoms and the CPG. This analysis showed that the association found between severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms and CPG mostly remains, with more severe depressive or anxiety symptoms being more strongly associated with more disabling and limiting pain, when CPG0 and CPG1 were combined to have a larger reference group.

Here also, all associations were less strong, with some associations especially the association of severe anxiety symptoms with the CPG2 and CPG4 remaining statistically significant, while other associations e. For those with pain, the highest ORs are seen in co-morbid depression and anxiety. The ORs for musculoskeletal pain range from 2. For gastro-intestinal pain, the ORs range from 1.

Cardio respiratory pain shows a range in ORs from 1. The high proportion of participants with anxiety and depressive disorders in this study reflects the sampling strategy for including sufficient numbers of respondents to examine individuals at different stages of development and severity of depression and anxiety.

This study demonstrates considerable associations between presence of depressive and anxiety disorders current and remitted and symptom severity with different pain dimensions, namely pain-related disability, pain intensity, and the location of pain symptoms musculoskeletal, gastro-intestinal, and cardio respiratory.

Our results show that having a mood or anxiety disorder increases the odds of highly disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, the severity of the depressive and anxiety symptoms are significantly associated with pain-related disability and limiting pain, with more severe symptoms having higher odds for highly disabling and severely limiting pain.

How an Age of Anxiety Became an Age of Depression

Context: During the s and s, anxiety was the emblematic mental health problem in the United States, and depression was considered to be a rare condition. One of the most puzzling phenomena regarding mental health treatment, research, and policy is why depression has become the central component of the stress tradition since then. Methods: This article reviews statistical trends in diagnosis, treatment, drug prescriptions, and textual readings of diagnostic criteria and secondary literature. In addition, antidepressant drugs were not associated with the stigma and alleged side effects of the anxiolytic drugs. Anxiety was at the forefront of medical and psychiatric attention in the United States during the s and s. Yet since that time, depression—considered a rare disease in the post—World War II period—has become the focus of mental health concern.

This is an indispensable journal that provides an excellent compendium for all the psychiatrists and other mental health professionals who need to stay on the cutting edge of virtually every aspects of psychiatry. The psychiatrists are at their best to discover new paradigms to treat psychological issues with their innovative research and best clinical expertise. This is the one of the top notch forums that promotes the standard excellences and advanced research. This published work is freely available for the readers. Scientists, researchers and readers advance their work, by accessing these articles. Accessing and downloading of the articles will increase the journal impact factor which is the calculating factor of the journal quality.

Depression is more than just feeling down or having a bad day. When a sad mood lasts for a long time and interferes with normal, everyday functioning, you may be depressed. Symptoms of depression include: 1. The following information is not intended to provide a medical diagnosis of major depression and cannot take the place of seeing a mental health professional. This is especially important if your symptoms are getting worse or affecting your daily activities. Top of Page.

How an Age of Anxiety Became an Age of Depression

Surfers are a heterogeneous population with a common interest in riding waves. Surfers qualitatively describe the surfing sensation as a hybrid of meditative and athletic experience. Numerous empirical studies link both meditative experience and exercise with reduced incidence of depression and anxiety; this potentially suggests that surfers may endorse fewer symptoms of either disorder. Results indicate that surfers reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, and employed emotion-based coping responses to stressful situations significantly less than the general populace.

Journal prompts are a wonderful way to explore feelings of anxiety and depression in a safe personal space. Often, the reasons behind our emotions and thought patterns lay hidden in our subconscious. Anxiety and depression can be confusing and mysterious in nature. To uncover the root causes of anxiety and depression, journal writing can be highly effective.

International Journal of Depression and Anxiety is an open access, peer-reviewed, the multidisciplinary journal focusing on effective treatments for those patients experiencing panic attacks, anxiety attacks, phobia, and social phobia. The journal gathers various key symptoms of depression and anxiety and tries adapting new conventional methods in the rehabilitation of the disease. Journal focus on the clinical and management aspects of anxiety and depression, the two of the most common mental health concerns in our society. The Journal publishes all types of articles such as research, reviews, cases, communications, etc. The journal is invited for contributions including but not limited to the topics of anxiety disorders, arithmomania, atypical depression, bipolar disorder, catatonic depression, depressive disorder, dysthymia, feeling, gerontophobia, hepatitis C, interferon therapy, interpersonal rejection, melancholia, mental and behavioral disorders, mood, nutritional deficiencies, panic disorder, postpartum depression, psychomotor retardation, sadness, upset, etc.

Journal of Depression and Anxiety Disorders

Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder.

Correction

 О Боже! - воскликнул он в ужасе. - Esta muerta, - прокаркал за его спиной голос, который трудно было назвать человеческим.  - Она мертва. Беккер обернулся как во сне. - Senor Becker? - прозвучал жуткий голос. Беккер как завороженный смотрел на человека, входящего в туалетную комнату.

 Он немного сонный, мадам. Дайте ему минутку прийти в. - Н-но… - Сьюзан произнесла слова медленно.  - Я видела сообщение… в нем говорилось… Смит кивнул: - Мы тоже прочитали это сообщение. Халохот рано принялся считать цыплят.

И вот эти два интеллектуала, казалось бы, неспособные на вспышки иррациональной влюбленности, обсуждая проблемы лингвистической морфологии и числовые генераторы, внезапно почувствовали себя подростками, и все вокруг окрасилось в радужные тона.

Люди на подиуме не отрываясь смотрели на экран. Агент Смит начал доклад. - По вашему приказу, директор, - говорил он, - мы провели в Севилье два дня, выслеживая мистера Энсея Танкадо. - Расскажите, как он погиб, - нетерпеливо сказал Фонтейн. Смит сообщил: - Мы вели наблюдение из мини-автобуса с расстояния метров в пятьдесят.

Северная Дакота - вовсе не отсылка к названию американского штата, это соль, которой он посыпал их раны. Он даже предупредил АНБ, подбросив ключ, что NDAKOTA - он. Это имя так просто превращается в Танкадо.

 Сьюзан, - сказал он, подходя ближе.

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4 Comments

  1. Doelia A.

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    04.05.2021 at 09:25 Reply
  2. Joseph S.

    World Journal of Depression and Anxiety is a peer reviewed Open Access journal follows double blinded peer review process.

    06.05.2021 at 10:23 Reply
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  4. Madox R.

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    11.05.2021 at 18:10 Reply

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