central and east european politics from communism to democracy pdf

Central And East European Politics From Communism To Democracy Pdf

On Sunday, May 2, 2021 7:11:39 AM

File Name: central and east european politics from communism to democracy .zip
Size: 1138Kb
Published: 02.05.2021

Central and East European Politics. Now in a fully updated edition, this essential text explores the other half of Europe—the new and future members of the European Union along with the problems and potential they bring to the region and to the world stage. Clear and comprehensive, it offers an authoritative and up-to-date analysis of the transformations and realities in Central and Eastern Europe, the Baltics, and Ukraine. Divided into two parts, the book presents a set of comparative country case studies as well as thematic chapters on key issues, including EU and NATO expansion, the economic transition and its social ramifications, the role of women, persistent problems of ethnicity and nationalism, and political reform. Leading scholars provide the historical context for the current situation of each country in the region.

The Battle for Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe

China pledged to preserve much of what makes Hong Kong unique when the former British colony was handed over more than two decades ago. Beijing said it would give Hong Kong fifty years to keep its capitalist system and enjoy many freedoms not found in mainland Chinese cities. But it seems that these promises are fading.

These moves sparked massive protests in Hong Kong and have drawn international condemnation. In , Beijing passed a controversial national security law and arrested dozens of pro-democracy activists and lawmakers, dimming hopes that Hong Kong will ever become a full-fledged democracy.

Demonstrations and Protests. Political Movements. The concept was intended to help integrate Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau with sovereign China while preserving their unique political and economic systems.

After more than a century and a half of colonial rule, the British government returned Hong Kong in Portugal returned Macau in , and Taiwan remains independent. Under the Basic Law, Hong Kongers are guaranteed freedoms of the press, expression, assembly, and religion, as well as protections under international law.

But in practice, Beijing has curtailed some of these rights. Although Hong Kong has certain freedoms, it is not a full democracy [PDF] by international standards. China is a one-party state and is reluctant to allow Hong Kong to hold free and fair elections. Experts say that ambiguity in the Basic Law heightens this fundamental tension. Since the handover, there have been no free votes by universal suffrage for the chief executive, who is the head of the Hong Kong government. During the most recent election, in , only candidates vetted by a nominating committee chosen by Beijing were allowed to run.

Hong Kong residents also get to vote for members of their local district councils, which handle day-to-day community concerns. Unlike China, Hong Kong has numerous political parties. They have traditionally split between two factions: pan-democrats, who call for incremental democratic reforms, and pro-establishment groups, who are by and large pro-business supporters of Beijing.

The latter have typically been more dominant in Hong Kong politics, but pro-democracy groups have increasingly garnered more support from voters.

Traditionally, only a small minority of Hong Kongers have favored outright independence. However, in recent years, student protesters demanding a more demoractic system have formed political groups, including more radical, anti-Beijing parties, such as Youngspiration, and Hong Kong Indigenous, and Demosisto. These parties tapped into the phenomenon in which more and more people see themselves as Hong Kongers or as Hong Kongers in China as opposed to identifying as Chinese nationals.

Several of these groups disbanded in , however, as Beijing cracked down on political opposition. Over the years, its attempts to impose more control over the city have sparked mass protests , which have in turn led the Chinese government to crack down further. Davis writes in his book Making Hong Kong China. For instance, in , the Hong Kong government proposed national security legislation that would have prohibited treason, secession, sedition, and subversion against the Chinese government.

Protesters organized massive rallies, known as the Umbrella Movement , to call for true democracy. In the years following the protests, Beijing and the Hong Kong government stepped up efforts to rein in dissent, including by prosecuting protest leaders, expelling several new legislators, and increasing media censorship.

A military aide salutes Chris Patten, the last British governor of Hong Kong, at a departure ceremony on June 30, Pro-democracy protesters brace themselves as riot police try to clear a demonstration in The protests become known as the Umbrella Movement.

Baggio Leung modifies his oath during his swearing in to the Legislative Council in Carrie Lam becomes the first woman elected as chief executive in Even after Lam withdraws the bill, clashes escalate between police and activists, who demand electoral reforms and an independent investigation into police violence, in late A record number of people vote in district council elections in November Pro-democracy candidates win more seats than ever before.

After protests stall in early amid the coronavirus pandemic, Beijing imposes a new national security law in June. In the summer of , Hong Kong saw its largest protests ever. For months, people demonstrated against a Beijing-endorsed legislative proposal that would have allowed extraditions to mainland China. Reports of police brutality, including the excessive use of tear gas and rubber bullets, exacerbated tensions.

Chief Executive Lam withdrew the bill in September, but the protests, which garnered international attention, continued until the outbreak of COVID in early Beijing took its most assertive action yet on June 30, , when it bypassed the Hong Kong legislature and imposed a new national security law on the city. The legislation effectively criminalizes any dissent, and adopts extremely broad definitions for crimes such as terrorism, subversion, secession, and collusion with foreign powers.

It also allows Beijing to establish a security force in Hong Kong and influence the selection of judges who will hear national security cases. Authorities have used the law to try to eliminate all forms of political opposition. These moves have silenced many Hong Kong residents who had fought for democracy and prompted others to flee the city.

The administration of former U. President Donald J. The United States also joined a handful of countries, such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, that suspended their extradition treaties with Hong Kong because of the national security law. The United Kingdom, which also ended its extradition agreement with the region, said it would allow three million Hong Kong residents to settle in the country and apply for citizenship.

Canada announced measures to make it easier for Hong Kong youth to study and work in the country, creating pathways for permanent residency. However, the opposition has not been unanimous. However, executives of some companies with large footprints in Hong Kong have recently voiced concerns about the national security law, criticizing the broad powers given to mainland authorities.

Some firms are reportedly considering leaving the city or are boosting hiring in other Asian financial capitals, such as Singapore and Tokyo. A majority of U. In particular, social media companies, including Facebook and Google, have expressed concerns about part of the law that requires them to surrender requested user data to the Hong Kong government. Other experts believe that Hong Kong will maintain its commercial status despite its democratic decline.

In recent years, Beijing has moved to connect Hong Kong more to the mainland, creating the Greater Bay Area project, an ambitious plan to integrate Hong Kong and cities in neighboring Guangdong Province into a more cohesive economic region.

Many firms and investors are betting that this increased connectivity will boost the amount of wealth flowing from the mainland into Hong Kong in the future. But it is surely the death of the democratic hopes of most of its 7. Cohen writes. In Foreign Affairs , Michael C. Davis argues that Hong Kong is now part of mainland China. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation tells the story of the massive protests in In Brief by Sheila A.

Smith February 24, United States. Diplomatic Corps? Migrants at the U. In Brief by Shannon K. Iran Nuclear Agreement. Backgrounder by Kali Robinson February 25, Southeast Asia.

Skip to main content. Beijing imposed a national security law in that gave it broad new powers to punish critics and silence dissenters and could fundamentally alter life for Hong Kongers. Introduction China pledged to preserve much of what makes Hong Kong unique when the former British colony was handed over more than two decades ago.

More From Our Experts. Adam Segal. Cyber Week in Review: February 26, David Sacks. Yanzhong Huang. Toxic Politics. Daily News Brief. A summary of global news developments with CFR analysis delivered to your inbox each morning.

Most weekdays. Email Address. Hong Kong Since the Handover View image. View image. For media inquiries on this topic, please reach out to communications cfr. Lindsay and Victoria Tin-bor Hui. President Biden has vowed to diversify the top ranks of government agencies.

The small and shrinking number of senior Black diplomats, in particular, could undermine U. United States Migrants at the U. President Biden is adopting a different approach than his predecessor to an increasing number of migrants who are arriving at the southern border after fleeing hardship in their home countries. Southeast Asia Myanmar: Optimism and Fear.

Developments in Central and East European Politics 4

Now in a fully updated edition, this essential text explores the post-communist half of Europe and the problems and potential it brings to the world stage. Clear and comprehensive, the book offers an authoritative and current analysis of the region's transformations and realities—from pre-communist history to the victories and reversals in Central and Eastern Europe, the Baltics, and Ukraine, including the Euromaidan and its domestic and international ramifications. Divided into two parts, the book presents a set of comparative country case studies as well as thematic chapters on key issues, including EU and NATO expansion, the economic transition and its social ramifications, the role of women, persistent problems of ethnicity and nationalism, legacies of the past, and political reform. Leading scholars provide the crucial historical context necessary to evaluate the challenges facing the region. They explain how communism ended and how democratic politics has developed or is struggling to emerge in its wake, how individual countries have transformed their economies, how their populations have been affected by rapid and wrenching change, and how foreign policy making has evolved. They explore the reversals and conflicts that have emerged even in the most successful transitions and their relevance to our understanding of political transitions and democratic consolidation in general. For students and specialists alike, this book will be an invaluable resource on the politics and economics of Central and Eastern Europe, caught between the EU and a resurgent Russia.

Central and East European Politics

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Developments in Central and East European Politics 2.

China pledged to preserve much of what makes Hong Kong unique when the former British colony was handed over more than two decades ago. Beijing said it would give Hong Kong fifty years to keep its capitalist system and enjoy many freedoms not found in mainland Chinese cities. But it seems that these promises are fading. These moves sparked massive protests in Hong Kong and have drawn international condemnation.

A communist state , also known as a Marxist—Leninist state , is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism—Leninism [ citation needed ]. Communist states are typically administered through democratic centralism by a single centralised communist party apparatus. These parties are usually Marxist—Leninist or some national variation thereof such as Maoism or Titoism , with the official aim of achieving socialism and progressing toward a communist society. There have been several instances of communist states with functioning political participation processes involving several other non-party organisations such as direct democratic participation, factory committees and trade unions , although the communist party remained the centre of power. As a term, communist state is used by Western historians, political scientists and media to refer to these countries.

Developments in Central and East European Politics 2

Democracy is fragile in the post-communist countries of Central Eastern Europe, where the specter of authoritarianism and corruption is rising.

Countering Democratic Backsliding in Poland

Central and East European Politics. Now in a fully updated edition, this essential text explores the other half of Europe—the new and future members of the European Union along with the problems and potential they bring to the region and to the world stage. Clear and comprehensive, it offers an authoritative and up-to-date analysis of the transformations and realities in Central and Eastern Europe, the Baltics, and Ukraine. Divided into two parts, the book presents a set of comparative country case studies as well as thematic chapters on key issues, including EU and NATO expansion, the economic transition and its social ramifications, the role of women, persistent problems of ethnicity and nationalism, and political reform. Leading scholars provide the historical context for the current situation of each country in the region. They explain how communism ended and how democratic politics has emerged or is struggling to emerge in its wake, how individual countries have transformed their economies, how their populations have been affected by rapid and wrenching change, and how foreign policy making has evolved. New to this edition are chapters on social issues and transitional justice.

Contributor s : Paul G. The chapters, all of which are new to this edition, focus on key features of the political systems that have emerged following the transition to postcommunist rule and the enlargement of the European Union through Full attention is given to the pattern of events in individual nations, but the main emphasis is on the framework of politics across the region—constitutions, leadership, parliaments, parties, and electoral systems—and the process of politics, as it is revealed in political participation, civil society, economic change, and the quality of democratic government within and beyond the region. Clearly written and well supported with references and suggestions for further reading, Developments in Central and East European Politics 4 is the ideal guide to the process of change in a group of states that were formerly modeled on the Soviet Union but are now a distinctive and varied presence within a continent that has been redefining its boundaries, its values, its economic systems, and its international allegiances. Developments in Central and East European Politics 4 is, as ever, a well written and accessible collection well suited to the needs of teaching and, in particular, to courses dealing with politics across post-communist Europe in broad comparative terms. Genderal readers and all undergraduates. Peters, Choice.

Thirty years ago, a wave of optimism swept across Europe as walls and regimes fell, and long-oppressed publics embraced open societies, open markets and a more united Europe. Three decades later, a new Pew Research Center survey finds that few people in the former Eastern Bloc regret the monumental changes of Yet, neither are they entirely content with their current political or economic circumstances. Indeed, like their Western European counterparts, substantial shares of Central and Eastern European citizens worry about the future on issues like inequality and the functioning of their political systems. Those in Central and Eastern European nations that joined the European Union generally believe membership has been good for their countries, and there is widespread support in the region for many democratic values.

Developments in Central and East European Politics 5

Contributor s : Paul G. The chapters, all of which are new to this edition, focus on key features of the political systems that have emerged following the transition to postcommunist rule and the enlargement of the European Union through Full attention is given to the pattern of events in individual nations, but the main emphasis is on the framework of politics across the region—constitutions, leadership, parliaments, parties, and electoral systems—and the process of politics, as it is revealed in political participation, civil society, economic change, and the quality of democratic government within and beyond the region. Clearly written and well supported with references and suggestions for further reading, Developments in Central and East European Politics 4 is the ideal guide to the process of change in a group of states that were formerly modeled on the Soviet Union but are now a distinctive and varied presence within a continent that has been redefining its boundaries, its values, its economic systems, and its international allegiances.

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year.

Thirty years ago, a wave of optimism swept across Europe as walls and regimes fell, and long-oppressed publics embraced open societies, open markets and a more united Europe. Three decades later, a new Pew Research Center survey finds that few people in the former Eastern Bloc regret the monumental changes of

pdf free download guide pdf

Subscribe

Subscribe Now To Get Daily Updates