civilization and its discontents pdf frederick gay

Civilization And Its Discontents Pdf Frederick Gay

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John Bright, ed. Found in: History.

After his abdication in November , the German emperor Wilhelm II continued to haunt the minds of his people. With the abolition of the lese-majesty laws in the new republic, many topics that were only discussed privately or obliquely before could now be broached openly.

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Why Freud Survives

Even though the persecution of Viennese Jews had begun immediately—Edward R. Murrow, in Vienna for CBS radio when the Germans arrived, was an eyewitness to the ransacking of Jewish homes—Freud had resisted pleas from friends that he flee.

He changed his mind after his daughter Anna was arrested and interrogated by the Gestapo. He was able to get some of his family out, but he left four sisters behind.

All of them died in the camps, one, of starvation, at Theresienstadt; the others, probably by gas, at Auschwitz and Treblinka. On January 28, , Virginia and Leonard Woolf came for tea. After he settled in Hampstead, the BBC taped him speaking, the only such recording in existence. But he was eighty-two and suffering from cancer of the jaw, and conversation with the Woolfs was awkward. The stage had been carefully set.

The Woolfs were not easily impressed by celebrity, and certainly not by stage setting. They understood the transactional nature of the tea.

A formidable man. Hitler and Stalin, between them, drove psychoanalysis out of Europe, but the movement reconstituted itself in two places where its practitioners were welcomed, London and New York. A product of Mitteleuropa, once centered in cities like Vienna, Berlin, Budapest, and Moscow, psychoanalysis was thus improbably transformed into a largely Anglo-American medical and cultural phenomenon. During the twelve years that Hitler was in power, only about fifty Freudian analysts immigrated to the United States a country Freud had visited only once, and held in contempt.

They were some of the biggest names in the field, though, and they took over American psychiatry. After the war, Freudians occupied university chairs; they dictated medical-school curricula; they wrote the first two editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders the DSM. Psychoanalytic theory guided the treatment of hospital patients, and, by the mid-nineteen-fifties, half of all hospital patients in the United States were diagnosed with mental disorders.

Most important, psychoanalysis helped move the treatment of mental illness from the asylum and the hospital to the office. Psychoanalysis is a talk therapy, which meant that people who were otherwise functioning normally could avail themselves of treatment.

The greater the number of people who wanted that kind of therapy, the greater the demand for therapists, and the postwar decades were a boom time for psychiatry. In , two-thirds of American psychiatrists worked in hospitals; in , seventeen per cent did. Twelve and a half per cent of American medical students chose psychiatry as a profession in , an all-time high. What is really going on are things that we are denying or repressing or sublimating or projecting onto the therapist by the mechanism of transference, and the goal of therapy is to bring those things to light.

Amazingly, Americans, a people stereotypically allergic to abstract systems, found this model of the mind irresistible. Many scholars have tried to explain why, and there are, no doubt, multiple reasons, but the explanation offered by the anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann is simple: alternative theories were worse. Freudian concepts were taken up by intellectuals, who wrote about cathexes, screen memories, and reaction formations, and they were absorbed into popular discourse.

People who had never read a word of Freud talked confidently about the superego, the Oedipus complex, and penis envy. Freud was recruited to the anti-utopian politics of the nineteen-fifties. Popular magazines equated Freud with Copernicus and Darwin. Claims were large. Professors in English departments naturally wondered how they might get in on the action.

They did not have much trouble finding a way. For it is not a stretch to treat literary texts in the same way that an analyst treats what a patient is saying. Academic critics are therefore always in the market for a theoretical apparatus that can give coherence and consistency to this enterprise, and Freudianism was ideally suited for the task. Decoding and exposing are what psychoanalysis is all about.

One professor excited about the possibilities was Frederick Crews. Crews received his Ph. The dissertation explained what Forster thought by looking at what Forster wrote. It was plain-vanilla history-of-ideas criticism, and Crews found it boring. As an undergraduate, at Yale, he had fallen in love with Nietzsche, and Nietzsche had led him to Freud.

Crews began teaching a popular graduate seminar on the subject. He also got involved in the antiwar movement on campus, serving as a co-chair of the Faculty Peace Committee. Like many people at Berkeley in those days, he became radicalized, and he considered his interest in Freud to be part of his radicalism.

Students would propose contradictory psychoanalytic readings, and they all sounded good, but it was just an ingenuity contest. There was no way to prove that one interpretation was truer than another. Psychoanalysis was beginning to look like a circular and self-justifying methodology. The article was a review of several books by revisionists.

Psychoanalysis had already been discredited as a medical science, Crews wrote; what researchers were now revealing was that Freud himself was possibly a charlatan—an opportunistic self-dramatizer who deliberately misrepresented the scientific bona fides of his theories.

People who send aggrieved letters to the Review often seem to have missed the fact that the Review always gives its writers the last word, and Crews availed himself of the privilege with relish and at length.

He gave, on balance, better than he got. Crews had retired from teaching in , and is now an emeritus professor at Berkeley. Part of the decline had to do with social change. Psychoanalysis was also taking a hit within the medical community. Studies suggesting that psychoanalysis had a low cure rate had been around for a while.

But the realization that depression and anxiety can be regulated by medication made a mode of therapy whose treatment times reached into the hundreds of billable hours seem, at a minimum, inefficient, and, at worst, a scam.

Managed-care companies and the insurance industry certainly drew that conclusion, and the third edition of the DSM , in , scrubbed out almost every trace of Freudianism. Meanwhile, the image of Freud as a lonely pioneer began to erode as well.

He had flown to Vienna after the Nazis arrived to urge Freud to flee. But the image originated with, and was cultivated by, Freud himself. One corner of Anglo-American intellectual life where Freudianism had always been regarded with suspicion was the philosophy department.

A few philosophers, like Stanley Cavell, who had an interest in literature and Continental thinkers took Freud up. But to philosophers of science the knowledge claims of psychoanalysis were always dubious. Swales and other researchers were also able to show that Freud consistently misrepresented the outcomes of the treatments he based his theories on. In the case of one of the only patients whose treatment notes Freud did not destroy, Ernst Lanzer—the Rat Man—it is clear that he misrepresented the facts as well.

In a study of the forty-three treatments about which some information survives, it turned out that Freud had broken his own rules for how to conduct an analysis, usually egregiously, in all forty-three. In , a British researcher, E. Thornton suggested that Freud was often high on cocaine when he wrote his early scientific articles, which accounts for their sloppiness with the data and the recklessness of their claims.

That year, in an interview with a Canadian philosophy professor, Todd Dufresne, Crews was asked whether he was ready to call it a day with Freud. Crews seems to have grown worried that although Freud and Freudianism may look dead, we cannot be completely, utterly, a hundred per cent sure. The new book synthesizes fifty years of revisionist scholarship, repeating and amplifying the findings of other researchers fully acknowledged , and tacking on a few additional charges. Crews is an attractively uncluttered stylist, and he has an amazing story to tell, but his criticism of Freud is relentless to the point of monomania.

It ought to come with a bulb of garlic. This is, obviously, the reputation the Woolfs carried with them when they went to meet Freud in As Crews is right to believe, this Freud has long outlived psychoanalysis. That persona helped Freud to evolve, in the popular imagination, from a scientist into a kind of poet of the mind. And the thing about poets is that they cannot be refuted. Freud and his concepts, now converted into metaphors, joined the legion of the undead.

Is there anything new to say about this person? Freud got engaged in , when he was twenty-six, and the engagement lasted four years. He and Martha spent most of that time in different cities, and Freud wrote to her virtually every day. Some fifteen hundred letters survive. Crews makes a great deal of the correspondence, and he finds much to disapprove of.

Who would want to be judged by letters sent to a lover? What the excerpts that Crews quotes seem to show us is an immature and unguarded young man who is ambitious and insecure, boastful and needy, ardent and impatient—all the ways people tend to come across in love letters.

But young people want to make a living. Freud mentions cocaine often in the letters. He used it to get through stressful social situations, but he also appreciated its benefits as an aphrodisiac, and Crews quotes from several letters in which he teases Martha about its effects.

He was taller than Martha, but not by much. During his engagement, for example, Freud spent four months studying in Paris, where he sometimes suffered from anxiety. He also suspects that Freud had sex with a prostitute, and was therefore not a virgin when, at the age of thirty, he finally got married.

That he had an eye for sexy women. That he masturbated, solicited a prostitute, shared he-man fantasies with his girlfriend, and got crushes on male friends. Who cares? Human beings do these things. Even if Freud had sex with Minna Bernays—so what? The standard revisionist hypothesis is that the sex took place on trips that the two took together without Martha, of which, as Crews points out, there were a surprising number. But Crews imagines assignations in the family home in Vienna as well.

Should he have?

The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness

Brandzel, Amy L. Queering Citizenship? Same-Sex Marriage and the State — Corber, Robert J. Mankiewicz's All about Eve 1— Burgwinkle, William E.

Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud ; second edition, is a book by the German philosopher and social critic Herbert Marcuse , in which the author proposes a non-repressive society, attempts a synthesis of the theories of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud , and explores the potential of collective memory to be a source of disobedience and revolt and point the way to an alternative future. Its title alludes to Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents The edition has an added "political preface". One of Marcuse's best known works, the book brought him international fame. Both Marcuse and many commentators have considered it his most important book, and it was seen by some as an improvement over the previous attempt to synthesize Marxist and psychoanalytic theory by the psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich. Eros and Civilization helped shape the subcultures of the s and influenced the gay liberation movement, and with other books on Freud, such as the classicist Norman O.

Civilization in a letter to his translator, Mrs. Riviere; but it was she herself who It will thus be obvious that Civilization and its Discontents is a work whose interest [The allusion is to a saying attributed to Frederick the Great: 'in my State every man potency in a homosexual competition. The first person to.

Why Freud Survives

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Even though the persecution of Viennese Jews had begun immediately—Edward R. Murrow, in Vienna for CBS radio when the Germans arrived, was an eyewitness to the ransacking of Jewish homes—Freud had resisted pleas from friends that he flee. He changed his mind after his daughter Anna was arrested and interrogated by the Gestapo. He was able to get some of his family out, but he left four sisters behind.

The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass: From 1817-1882

Frederick Goddard Tuckerman published only one book of poetry during his lifetime, and it was a commercial and critical failure.

It was the result of an interest in psychoanalysis that began when the philosopher Herbert Marcuse suggested to Brown that he should read Freud. The book became famous when Norman Podhoretz recommended it to the critic Lionel Trilling , and over fifty-thousand copies had been sold by It has been compared to works such as Marcuse's Eros and Civilization and the philosopher Michel Foucault 's Madness and Civilization , and Brown's objectives have been seen as being the same as Foucault's.

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Чтобы развеять эти опасения, конгресс объявил, что, когда алгоритм будет создан, его передадут для ознакомления лучшим математикам мира, которые должны будут оценить его качество. Команда криптографов АНБ под руководством Стратмора без особого энтузиазма создала алгоритм, который окрестила Попрыгунчиком, и представила его в конгресс для одобрения. Зарубежные ученые-математики проверили Попрыгунчика и единодушно подтвердили его высокое качество. Они заявляли, что это сильный, чистый алгоритм, который может стать отличным стандартом шифрования.

 Попробую угадать. Безвкусное золотое кольцо с надписью по-латыни. - Нет.  - Он усмехнулся.

Чтобы еще больше усилить впечатление о своей некомпетентности, АНБ подвергло яростным нападкам программы компьютерного кодирования, утверждая, что они мешают правоохранительным службам ловить и предавать суду преступников. Участники движения за гражданские свободы торжествовали и настаивали на том, что АНБ ни при каких обстоятельствах не должно читать их почту. Программы компьютерного кодирования раскупались как горячие пирожки.

Глядя, как он шелестит деньгами, Меган вскрикнула и изменилась в лице, по-видимому ложно истолковав его намерения. Она испуганно посмотрела на вращающуюся дверь… как бы прикидывая расстояние. До выхода было метров тридцать.

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