indian culture and civilization pdf

Indian Culture And Civilization Pdf

On Monday, May 10, 2021 4:56:52 PM

File Name: indian culture and civilization .zip
Size: 1670Kb
Published: 10.05.2021

India's history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization.

Ministry of Culture, Government of India. Recognizing the ongoing need to position itself for the digital future, Indian Culture is an initiative by the Ministry of Culture.

15 Fundamental Characteristics of Indian Culture

Indian culture is the heritage of social norms , ethical values , traditional customs, belief systems , political systems , artifacts and technologies that originated in or are associated with the Indian subcontinent. The term also applies beyond India to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to India by immigration, colonization, or influence, particularly in South Asia and Southeast Asia.

India's languages , religions , dance , music , architecture , food and customs differ from place to place within the country. Indian culture, often labelled as a combination of several cultures, has been influenced by a history that is several millennia old, beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization.

Indian-origin religions Hinduism , Jainism , Buddhism , and Sikhism , [3] are all based on the concepts of dharma and karma. India has 28 states and 8 union territories with different culture and it is the second most populated country in the world. This particularly concerns the spread of Hinduism , Buddhism , architecture , administration and writing system from India to other parts of Asia through the Silk Road by the travelers and maritime traders during the early centuries of the Common Era.

India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and other religions. They are collectively known as Indian religions. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether, [23] [24] [25] and possibly as many as 2.

India is one of the most religiously and ethnically diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Religion plays a central and definitive role in the life of many of its people. Although India is a secular Hindu-majority country, it has a large Muslim population.

Except for Jammu and Kashmir , Punjab , Meghalaya , Nagaland , Mizoram and Lakshadweep , Hindus form the predominant population in all 28 states and 8 union territories. Sikhs and Christians are other significant minorities of India. According to the census, Islam Indian philosophy comprises the philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.

The main schools of Indian philosophy were formalised chiefly between BCE to the early centuries of the Common Era. According to philosopher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , the earliest of these, which date back to the composition of the Upanishads in the later Vedic period — BCE , constitute "the earliest philosophical compositions of the world.

Subsequent centuries produced commentaries and reformulations continuing up to as late as the 20th century. For generations, India has a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. It is when extended members of a family — parents, children, the children's spouses and their offspring, etc.

Usually, the oldest male member is the head of the joint Indian family system. He mostly makes all important decisions and rules, and other family members are likely to abide by them.

In a study, Orenstein and Micklin analysed India's population data and family structure. Their studies suggest that Indian household sizes had remained similar over the to period. Thereafter, with urbanisation and economic development, India has witnessed a break up of traditional joint family into more nuclear-like families.

The traditionally large joint family in India, in the s, accounted for a small percent of Indian households, and on average had lower per capita household income.

He finds that joint family still persists in some areas and in certain conditions, in part due to cultural traditions and in part due to practical factors. Arranged marriages have long been the norm in Indian society. Even today, the majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members. In the past, the age of marriage was young. In most of the marriages, the bride's family provides a dowry to the bridegroom.

Traditionally, the dowry was considered a woman's share of the family wealth, since a daughter had no legal claim on her natal family's real estate. It also typically included portable valuables such as jewelry and household goods that a bride could control throughout her life.

Since , Indian laws treat males and females as equal in matters of inheritance without a legal will. There is a dearth of scientific surveys or studies on Indian marriages where the perspectives of both husbands and wives were solicited in-depth.

Sample surveys suggest the issues with marriages in India are similar to trends observed elsewhere in the world. The divorce rates are rising in India. Urban divorce rates are much higher. Women initiate about 80 percent of divorces in India. Opinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists, the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while, for some modernists, they speak of healthy new empowerment for women.

Recent studies suggest that Indian culture is trending away from traditional arranged marriages. Banerjee et al. They find that the marriage trends in India are similar to trends observed over the last 40 years in China, Japan and other nations.

The percentage of self-arranged marriages called love marriages in India were also increasing, particularly in the urban parts of India. Weddings are festive occasions in India with extensive decorations, colors, music, dance, costumes and rituals that depend on the religion of the bride and the groom, as well as their preferences.

While there are many festival-related rituals in Hinduism, vivaha wedding is the most extensive personal ritual an adult Hindu undertakes in his or her life. The rituals and process of a Hindu wedding vary depending on the region of India, local adaptations, resources of the family and preferences of the bride and the groom. Nevertheless, there are a few key rituals common in Hindu weddings — Kanyadaan , Panigrahana , and Saptapadi ; these are respectively, gifting away of daughter by the father, voluntarily holding hand near the fire to signify impending union, and taking seven steps before fire with each step including a set of mutual vows.

Mangalsutra necklace of bond that a Hindu groom ties with three knots around the bride's neck in a marriage ceremony. The practice is an integral part of a marriage ceremony as prescribed in Manusmriti, the traditional law governing Hindu marriage.

After the seventh step and vows of Saptapadi , the couple is legally husband and wife. The couple walks around the holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib four times. Indian Muslims celebrate a traditional Islamic wedding following customs similar to those practiced in the Middle East. The rituals include Nikah , payment of financial dower called Mahr by the groom to the bride, signing of a marriage contract, and a reception.

Homes, buildings and temples are decorated with festive lights, diya , for Diwali , a major festival of India. The Navaratri festival is an occasion of classical and folk dance performances at Hindu temples. Pictured is the Ambaji Temple of Gujarat. Immersion of Ganesha idol during the Ganesh Chaturthi festival in Maharashtra. Kathakali performances are a part of Onam festival tradition. Durga Puja is a multi-day festival in Eastern India that features elaborate temple and stage decorations pandals , scripture recitation, performance arts, revelry, and processions.

The Hornbill Festival , Kohima , Nagaland. The festival involves colourful performances, crafts, sports, food fairs, games and ceremonies. India, being a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three national holidays in India , the Independence Day , the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti , are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India.

In addition, many Indian states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. India celebrates a variety of festivals due to the large diversity of India. The government also provides facilities for the celebration of all religious festivals with equality and grants road bookings, security, etc. The Indian New Year festival is celebrated in different parts of India with a unique style at different times.

Certain festivals in India are celebrated by multiple religions. Sikh festivals, such as Guru Nanak Jayanti , Baisakhi are celebrated with full fanfare by Sikhs and Hindus of Punjab and Delhi where the two communities together form an overwhelming majority of the population. Adding colours to the culture of India, the Dree Festival is one of the tribal festivals of India celebrated by the Apatanis of the Ziro valley of Arunachal Pradesh , which is the easternmost state of India.

Nowruz is the most important festival among the Parsi community of India. Islam in India is the second largest religion with over million Muslims, according to India's census. Christianity in India is the third-largest religion with over The country celebrates Christmas and Good Friday as public holidays.

Regional and community fairs are also common festival in India. For example, Pushkar Fair of Rajasthan is one of the world's largest markets of cattle and livestock.

All these are commonly spoken greetings or salutations when people meet and are forms of farewell when they depart. Namaskar is considered slightly more formal than Namaste but both express deep respect. Namaskar is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus , Jains and Buddhists, and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent.

In Indian and Nepali culture, the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. However, the same hands folded gesture may be made wordlessly or said without the folded hand gesture. The word is derived from Sanskrit namah : to bow , reverential salutation , and respect , and te : "to you".

Taken literally, it means "I bow to you". These traditional forms of greeting may be absent in the world of business and in India's urban environment, where a handshake is a common form of greeting. The varied and rich wildlife of India has a profound impact on the region's popular culture. Common name for wilderness in India is Jungle which was adopted by Britons living in India to the English language.

India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales. In Hinduism, the cow is regarded as a symbol of ahimsa non-violence , mother goddess and bringer of good fortune and wealth. This is why beef remains a taboo food in mainstream Hindu and Jain society. The Article 48 of the present Indian Constitution says that the state shall endeavor to prohibit slaughtering and smuggling of cows. Several states of India have passed laws to protect cows, while many states have no restrictions on the production and consumption of beef.

Some groups oppose the butchering of cows, while other secular groups argue that what kind of meat one eats ought to be a matter of personal choice in a democracy. Gujarat, a western state of India, has the Animal Preservation Act, enacted in October , that prohibits the killing of cows along with buying, selling and transport of beef.

In contrast, Odisha, Assam and Andhra Pradesh allow butchering of cattle with a fit-for-slaughter certificate. In the states of West Bengal and Kerala, consumption of beef is not deemed an offence.

Culture of India

Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers! Full Text PDF. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Bhattacharya S. Anon, Irrigation in India through the ages. Kangle R. Second edition.

Eating disorders essay example, essay kashmir issue with quotations essay on jal hi jeevan hai in hindi for class 5. Akron children's hospital case study. Education dissertation proposal. How much to write for irish essay, national 5 persuasive essay example. What is abstract in research paper. Why duke essays.

Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy

Our knowledge of the ancient world has been radically altered by impressive archaeological discoveries over the last two centuries. Yet, even during the nineteenth century British explorers and officials were curious about brick mounds dotting the landscape of northwest India, where Pakistan is today. A large one was located in a village named Harappa see Figure 3.

Indian society is collectivistic and promotes social cohesion and interdependence. The traditional Indian joint family, which follows the same principles of collectivism, has proved itself to be an excellent resource for the care of the mentally ill. However, the society is changing with one of the most significant alterations being the disintegration of the joint family and the rise of nuclear and extended family system. Although even in today's changed scenario, the family forms a resource for mental health that the country cannot neglect, yet utilization of family in management of mental disorders is minimal.

A brief discussion on the fundamental characteristics of Indian culture reveals two important aspects:. Various Muslim nations to the west of India prefer to call it as Hind or Hindustan. Thus we find diversity in the nomenclature of the land itself. For a better understanding on the diverse elements of Indian culture we shall first should focus on its various aspects.

The culture and civilisation of ancient India in historical outline

Indian culture is the heritage of social norms , ethical values , traditional customs, belief systems , political systems , artifacts and technologies that originated in or are associated with the Indian subcontinent. The term also applies beyond India to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to India by immigration, colonization, or influence, particularly in South Asia and Southeast Asia.

Indian culture is the heritage of social norms , ethical values , traditional customs, belief systems , political systems , artifacts and technologies that originated in or are associated with the Indian subcontinent. The term also applies beyond India to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to India by immigration, colonization, or influence, particularly in South Asia and Southeast Asia. India's languages , religions , dance , music , architecture , food and customs differ from place to place within the country. Indian culture, often labelled as a combination of several cultures, has been influenced by a history that is several millennia old, beginning with the Indus Valley Civilization.

guide pdf free pdf

Subscribe

Subscribe Now To Get Daily Updates