Parental Leave And Child Health Across Oecd Countries Pdf
File Name: parental leave and child health across oecd countries .zip
- Paid Leave in the States: A Critical Support for Low-wage Workers and Their Families
- Paid family leave and children health outcomes in OECD countries
- Paid parental leave and family wellbeing in the sustainable development era
Paid Leave in the States: A Critical Support for Low-wage Workers and Their Families
American families are changing. More children live with two working parents or a single working parent. At the other end of the life cycle, adults are living longer and working longer. These trends have increased the need for paid family and medical leave, which allows workers to fulfill important caregiving responsibilities without having to give up their paid employment. To address this need, seven states and the District of Columbia have enacted paid family and medical leave insurance laws, and many other states and the federal government have these programs on their legislative agendas. The need for paid family and medical leave is widespread. Nearly every worker will experience childbirth or a serious illness themselves or in their family at some point, requiring time off work.
Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries LMICs. In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately , live births in 20 countries from to ; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. Fixed effects for country and year were included to control for, respectively, unobserved time-invariant confounders that varied across countries and temporal trends in mortality that were shared across countries.
To understand the relationship between parental leave and child health better, this study examines the aggregate effects of parental leave policies on child health outcomes using data from 18 OECD countries 1 from — This study explores the effects of other social policies related to families and young children, such as public expenditures on family cash benefits, family allowances, and family services per child, on child health outcomes. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
Paid family leave and children health outcomes in OECD countries
Parental leave , or family leave , is an employee benefit available in almost all countries. Often, the minimum benefits and eligibility requirements are stipulated by law. Unpaid parental or family leave is provided when an employer is required to hold an employee's job while that employee is taking leave. Paid parental or family leave provides paid time off work to care for or make arrangements for the welfare of a child or dependent family member. In , the International Labour Organization reviewed parental leave policies in countries and territories, and found that all countries except Papua New Guinea have laws mandating some form of parental leave. Research has linked paid parental leave to better health outcomes for children,  as well as mothers.
During the past four decades, most OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries have adopted or expanded paid family leave, which offers leave to workers following the birth or adoption of a child as well as care for ill family members. This is a limitation, since most of the recent expansion in paid family leave in OECD countries has been to expand leave benefits to fathers. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of paid family leave on the wellbeing of children, extending what we know about the effects of maternity leave and establishing new evidence on paternity leave. The paper examines the effects of paid family leave expansions on country-level neonatal mortality rates, infant mortality rates, under-five mortality rates, and the measles immunization rates in 35 OECD countries, during the time period of to Using an event study design, an approximately 1.
The composition of the American workforce and family have changed significantly over the last few decades. Single motherhood and dual-earner households have been trending upward, and the majority of mothers with young children are now in the labor force. Some fear that this represents a shift toward an increasingly untenable work-life balance for parents who must choose between their livelihoods and being physically present for their kids or family members in need. Currently, the federal Family and Medical Leave Act FMLA offers 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave to care for newborns or seriously ill family members for employees who have worked at least a year for a larger employer 50 or more employees. While these protections cover 60 percent of the workforce, evidence suggests that many eligible employees do not take leave when they need it because they cannot afford it. They include the potential cost increases employers could experience due to new administrative requirements or covering for employees who take leave, the potential for employees to abuse the program, and the possibility that employers will avoid hiring women in child-bearing years. However, proponents of paid family leave justify their proposals by pointing to the potential long-term economic benefits.
Paid parental leave and family wellbeing in the sustainable development era
Family-friendly policies matter because they help children to get a better start in life and help parents to find the right balance between their commitments at work and at home. This report focuses on two key policies: childcare leave for parents and early childhood education and care for preschool children. It reviews these policies in the 41 high- and middle-income countries that are part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD or the European Union EU , using the most recent comparable data on hand.
This topic aims to provide a better understanding of the various issues surrounding parental leave policies and their effects on families and child development. Maternity and parental leave policies date back more than years and are now established policy instruments in over nations. Until recently, much of the research in this area has focussed primarily on use patterns and the economic consequences of leave policies.
Отец Энсея так ни разу и не взглянул на сына. Ошеломленный потерей жены и появлением на свет неполноценного, по словам медсестер, ребенка, которому скорее всего не удастся пережить ночь, он исчез из больницы и больше не вернулся. Энсея Танкадо отдали в приемную семью. Каждую ночь юный Танкадо смотрел на свои скрюченные пальцы, вцепившиеся в куклу Дарума note 1и клялся, что отомстит - отомстит стране, которая лишила его матери, а отца заставила бросить его на произвол судьбы. Не знал он только одного - что в его планы вмешается судьба.
Он совсем забыл: звонок за границу из Испании - все равно что игра в рулетку, все зависит от времени суток и удачи. Придется попробовать через несколько минут.
Беккера не устраивала перспектива ждать десять часов, пока тучный немец со своей спутницей спустятся к завтраку. - Я понимаю, - сказал. - Извините за беспокойство.