Technology And Informal Education What Is Taught What Is Learned Pdf
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- Technology and Informal Education: What Is Taught, What Is Learned
- What is learned from using different media
- 10 Informal Learning Activities to Boost Employee Engagement
- Informal learning
Firstly, the chapter reviews the literature defining informal and formal learning, noting the complexity and the lack of consensus. Secondly, it discusses how technology can be used to bridge learning through harnessing the digital practices that young people engage with informally such as social networking, game-based learning, and digital making. The authors then outline some pedagogical issues which need to be considered to maximize the potential of bridging formal and informal learning.
Technology and Informal Education: What Is Taught, What Is Learned
Metrics details. However, how STEM teachers learn in an informal setting remains unclear. As a result, it is important to observe and understand the path such teachers take to see how they develop their teacher identities.
As a result, much effort has been put into promoting student participation in STEM-focused informal education activities in many countries around the world including Canada and the USA Kim, However, understanding STEM teacher learning in informal settings such as STEM centers, science centers, and museums remains an area less talked about in the literature.
Not much is known on how informal STEM teachers progress in such environments and how or whether this changing nature of technology enhances or hinders their learning.
The current literature on how STEM teachers progress is not quite clear as it is scattered throughout works on teacher training, professional development, teacher identity, and teacher perceptions and attitudes e. By looking at past studies on teacher identity, Avraamidou calls for the need to carry out studies specifically on science teacher identity which are longitudinal and view teacher identity as a process which shows how teachers develop in different contexts.
She was seen to shape her thoughts to resemble the ideal belief system laid out by Green which consists of a combination of different types of beliefs. To do this, they started with three stages of student, teacher candidate, and teacher.
Themes that emerged which affected these identities of participants in their journeys from students to teachers were memories related to science and science instruction, STEM-centered program, experiences gained in the field, teaching in the first year, and opinions held on what good science teaching consists of. STEM education initiatives in informal settings have many proponents because of their potential to enhance STEM learning without standard curriculum pressures National Research Council, ; Peppler, However, informal STEM education is a narrower subcategory of STEM education in general, and this means there are even scarcer resources on how teachers develop their identities in such environments.
But longitudinal-natured studies which specifically show how teachers progress in such environments and how their identities are shaped are rare. Through semi-structured interviews with secondary school teachers who participated in informal STEM outreach activities with their students, Aslam, Adefila, and Bagiya realized that these activities provided teachers with opportunities to interactively and transformatively co-learn alongside their students and deeply reflect on their teaching practices which resulted in a strengthening of their own identities as STEM professionals.
The existing studies on teacher learning and progress in informal settings focus on pre- or in-service teachers who have undergone or are currently undergoing formal teacher education and how being in informal settings can complement their skills for a formal educational setting, whereas many teachers in informal settings are not required to have had formal training.
Studies which do observe informal teachers who did not necessarily go through formal teacher education do not necessarily emphasize teacher progress. Koch and Gorges studied several women STEM facilitators working in an informal setting who came from different educational backgrounds and interests.
Although their work did not focus on how these facilitators developed as teachers, it did show how they had all experienced a level of professional growth and developed their STEM identities because of the STEM course they had taught.
Their research participants mentioned that learning from the curriculum they had in hand, putting it into practice, and working in an encouraging environment had influenced them to continue work in STEM-related fields by resuming to teach in the field or moving on to other STEM careers.
The study was guided by this research question: What are the learning progressions of one STEM teacher in an informal setting? The last and rarest stage to reach is the self-transforming stage where one can look at all beliefs from the outside and be open to ideas. In this stage, one realizes that they have ignored their own desires for too long.
Constantly following others brings about problematic results, and the need arises to include oneself in decisions as well as others. At this point, self-value gradually gains importance in what one believes in and does, and this slowly paves the way for the next phase.
This also means that they now shape their own identity as well, along with their social relations. In other words, they are now the ones deciding for their lives. In this stage, one finally feels as if they have control over their life and external factors as opposed to being controlled by them. The three dimensions of epistemological how we know , intrapersonal how we see ourselves , and interpersonal how we create our relationships contribute to this development.
Then, they move on to transitional knowing and realize that some knowledge is not certain, and finally reach independent knowing where they come to believe most knowledge is not certain. An even more advanced stage where students rarely reached is the contextual knowing stage where knowledge is evaluated based on the existing context. These stages of knowing can be seen as parallel to the identity development stages mentioned above.
When speaking of favorable collegiate outcomes, King and Baxter Magolda introduced three levels initial, intermediate, and mature of intercultural maturity which show how individuals learn to act and understand in interculturally appropriate ways. The initial level is in line with following formulas, the intermediate level corresponds to the crossroads stage, and the mature level speaks of self-authorship.
These studies have also shown that people may follow different levels of progress throughout the stages based on the contexts they are in because of the various experiences they have. This study was carried out in the form of a single case study with a single unit Yin, The unit of analysis is the teacher, and the data gathered is related to a 6-week reflection and teaching period at a STEM center in Ontario.
At the time of the study, the teacher was a year-old PhD student in the field of education with a background in business. The teacher had volunteered at this STEM center since July of and was then offered to teach a course in February of Her only teaching experience dated back to her teenage years when she had taught English to young children after her own school hours.
During this time, she became familiar with the teaching environment at the center, learned the kids coding software regularly used for the classes SCRATCH , and used opportunities to show her graphic design skills which all led to the decision for her to teach her own course. He is also one of the founders of this nonprofit STEM center which was established in This graphic design and game development course was a course catered towards ages 6—12 and had been previously taught by the director himself.
As a result, the director suggested a number of graphic design software which could be used for the classes, but also gave the teacher freedom to choose other options. Since the progress of the teacher was important to us, we coded the data based on challenges the teacher was facing and solutions taken up for those specific challenges throughout the sessions.
Inside these categories, an inductive approach was taken using open and axial coding Creswell, to find emergent patterns. To better adapt this framework Fig. We then went through our available data using these codes while also marking each piece of coded data in our overall time frame Fig. According to Lincoln and Guba , data triangulation, peer debriefing and member checks, and process and data audits were used for trustworthiness.
Before the analysis, the choice of method, and after the analysis, the codings were sent to an impartial colleague for peer debriefing. The same colleague who had supported us for peer debriefing and was well aware of our methodological approach also performed our process and data audits and provided us with continuous feedback throughout the work. We would like to acknowledge that this framework is usually studied with the help of many interviews and over long periods of time whereas our study only covers a 6-week period.
However, as mentioned above, our data pointed us towards this framework and we clearly saw value in assessing this compatibility. As indicated in Fig. A total of codes were created: She was knowledgeable in the contents of the course, but it was the first time she was going to design and teach a STEM class. She asked the Director of Education for some ideas in an email and received a reply.
This complete following of others and adherence to imagined or real expectations continued until the first class had been held. The positive experience of the first class along with the approval and support she received from the director pushed her to give more weight to her own content knowledge and ideas for the second class. This shows that she sees the need to bring in her own views without necessarily checking them with an authority, but still they are in red and accompanied with question marks which show her lack of confidence to act on her views without approval.
Right before the second class, she decided firmly to bring in her own idea as a centerpiece which shows her need to include her own knowledge. But at the same time, her own idea was the same idea that she had proposed to the director before the first session and had gotten positive feedback on. Her constant lookout for satisfaction among students and their parents also showed this need for approvals. Similarly, gradual change can be seen as we move forward throughout the weeks.
For the third session, the teacher decided on new content and new software which was different from what the director had suggested. The director had purchased graphic tablets after the first class and asked our teacher participant to add the use of these tablets to one of the sessions.
He also suggested the teacher use the tablets with the Sculptris software, to create 3D characters. The teacher disagreed because she noticed that her students had already been making characters for the last two sessions and wanted to provide a new experience for them, so after careful consideration of a handful of software, she proposed to make a backdrop or a different element for the third session using a new software MyPaint.
The teacher started to recognize and communicate what she wanted to teach and do in class as opposed to what had been suggested to her so far epistemological. Also, for the first time, she was confident in herself interpersonal and was negotiating with the director for her decisions interpersonal which were the strongest signs of progression through the framework seen up to this point.
For the fourth session, again she inserted new ideas in the lesson plan but without any question marks or red colors. She did not consult the director regarding her plans and wrote both in her journal and lesson plan in a more assertive manner compared to her initial entries. She also expressed she is more comfortable to joke around with students and have a good time.
Instances like these point to her progress towards self-authorship in the epistemological and intrapersonal dimensions as she starts trusting her identity as a teacher and her decisions on what to teach.
This level of self-authoring was seen most in the epistemological dimension towards the end. Figure 2 shows a visual representation of how during the weeks, the codings move through the identity stages of the framework.
Some data adhered to the framework but were not easily codable into one specific section of Fig. As Baxter Magolda had also concluded, this showed a clear interweaving of the three dimensions of the framework. This shows her beliefs about knowledge and herself as a teacher depended completely on her relationship with the director. This dependence of the intrapersonal and epistemological dimensions on the interpersonal dimension stayed visible throughout all the sessions See Fig.
In her second entry once again, she showed how she made her teaching decisions based on the feedback she received from the director:. Then, although I had not initially planned this out from last week, since [the director] gave me good feedback on the lesson plan regarding the order giving section, I took the liberty of incorporating imagination a bit more here as well so I took them [students] to sit in a corner away from the computers and did an imagination activity, where they closed their eyes and imagined a place where rain falls from purple and orange clouds, but the raindrops are not water February 21, Moving forward, she starts to realize what kind of a teacher she wants to be, but she is still burdened by the presence of others when they are there.
I feel more confident now when teaching. I think. Holly was not there as a volunteer, and [the director] came in late and would go and come back more than usual March 9, Apart from her relationship with those in the center, her relationship with the students and parents also shaped how she decided to act and see herself as a teacher. This separation of beliefs and actions is also a characteristic of the crossroads stage:.
March 25, As mentioned, there were many instances throughout our data where the epistemological and intrapersonal dimensions depended on the interpersonal, but we were also able to occasionally see the opposite.
After the teacher participant was given the tablet, she downloaded a number of software and spent many hours testing them out, while also learning to work with the tablet herself. Once she had gained enough knowledge in the area, she gained her own opinion on what she wanted to teach, how she wanted to teach it, her reasons for her choices, and also what software she thought was best for the students.
This epistemological and intrapersonal progress was what empowered her to disagree with the director and negotiate her requests and beliefs instead. These instances all reinforce the interconnections of dimensions and show how improvements in one can affect the other.
This study expands the literature on informal STEM teacher progress by recognizing its adaptability to the self-authorship framework. As mentioned above, the observed development resembled the self-authorship framework Baxter Magolda, This framework has a complex and cyclical nature, so moving through the stages does not necessarily translate into following a linear path Baxter Magolda, This is seen in this case see Fig, 1 as the teacher of our study clearly starts in the following formulas stage but constantly shows elements of moving forward up until the self-authorship phase while simultaneously moving back to the initial phase.
The existence of a code related to a stage does not necessarily indicate that the participant is in that stage.
What is learned from using different media
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Advances in the digital technologies available to support learning are among the most dramatic developments since the publication of HPL I. These examples suggest the range of ways technologies can support learning in varied sociocultural contexts. The game in the first example was appropriate for repetitive drill and practice on numerical operations, whereas the intelligent tutoring system was needed to acquire deep mental models of aircraft devices.
10 Informal Learning Activities to Boost Employee Engagement
Download a PDF of this blog to take with you. Formal learning channels have largely been seen as the most effective way to train employees in the past. However, businesses have recently started to realize that employees can gain a great deal of information from less structured learning.
Informal learning is any learning that is not formal learning or non-formal learning , such as self-directed learning or learning from experience. Informal learning is organized differently than formal and non-formal learning because it has no set objective in terms of learning outcomes and is never intentional from the learner's standpoint. For all learners this includes heuristic language building, socialization, enculturation, and play. Informal learning is a pervasive ongoing phenomenon of learning via participation or learning via knowledge creation, in contrast with the traditional view of teacher-centered learning via knowledge acquisition. The term is often conflated, however, with non-formal learning, and self-directed learning.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Greenfield Published Psychology, Medicine Science. The informal learning environments of television, video games, and the Internet are producing learners with a new profile of cognitive skills. This profile features widespread and sophisticated development of visual-spatial skills, such as iconic representation and spatial visualization. A pressing social problem is the prevalence of violent video games, leading to desensitization, aggressive behavior, and gender inequity in opportunities to develop visual-spatial skills.
Much of the learning that we experience as human beings occurs outside the realms of formal education and is classified as informal learning. Most of what we learn from birth about speech, cultural norms, spacial awareness, and social cues comes from personal experience and a personal creation of knowledge. Knowing how all-encompassing informal learning is, we believe that it is important for both practitioners and researchers to gain a better understanding of what informal learning is and how it works. In this article, we give a description of some of the key characteristics and components of informal learning and compare and contrast them to the characteristics and components of formal learning.
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The informal learning environments of television, video games, and the Internet are producing learners with a new profile of cognitive skills. This profile features.
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