gene structure and function pdf

Gene Structure And Function Pdf

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Gene Structure, Organization and Regulation of Gene Expression

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Genes and Chromosomes

All living beings have genes. They exist throughout the body. Genes are a set of instructions that determine what the organism is like, its appearance, how it survives, and how it behaves in its environment. Genes are made of a substance called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. They give instructions for a living being to make molecules called proteins. A geneticist is a person who studies genes and how they can be targeted to improve aspects of life. Genetic engineering can provide a range of benefits for people, for example, increasing the productivity of food plants or preventing diseases in humans.

What is a gene?

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product that enable to produce protein as the end product. Gene expression is summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology first formulated by Francis Crick in , [1] further developed in his article, [2] and expanded by the subsequent discoveries of reverse transcription [3] [4] [5] and RNA replication. The process of gene expression is used by all known life— eukaryotes including multicellular organisms , prokaryotes bacteria and archaea , and utilized by viruses —to generate the macromolecular machinery for life.

Gene , unit of hereditary information that occupies a fixed position locus on a chromosome. Genes achieve their effects by directing the synthesis of proteins. In eukaryotes such as animals , plants , and fungi , genes are contained within the cell nucleus. The mitochondria in animals and the chloroplasts in plants also contain small subsets of genes distinct from the genes found in the nucleus. In prokaryotes organisms lacking a distinct nucleus, such as bacteria , genes are contained in a single chromosome that is free-floating in the cell cytoplasm.

What are genes and why are they important?

Gene expression

Genes are segments of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA that contain the code for a specific protein that functions in one or more types of cells in the body. Chromosomes are structures within cells that contain a person's genes. Some traits are caused by mutated genes that are inherited or that are the result of a new gene mutation. Proteins are probably the most important class of material in the body.

A gene can be defined as a segment of DNA that contains information coding for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain and any other regulatory sequences which are essential for its proper expression. By proper expression, we mean for the production of a normal mRNA molecule, in to correct amount, in the correct place, and at the correct time during the cell cycle or during development. A molecular definition could be that a gene is a sequence of DNA that is essential for the production of a functional product be it a polypeptide or an RNA molecule. In humans and in most eukaryotic genomes , most of the genes are discontinuous.

NCBI Bookshelf. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. New York: W. Freeman; The one- gene —one- enzyme hypothesis was an impressive step forward in our understanding of gene function, but just how do genes control the functioning of enzymes? Virtually all enzymes are proteins, and thus we must review the basic facts of protein structure to follow the next step in the study of gene function. In simple terms, a protein is a macromolecule composed of amino acids attached end to end in a linear string.

We also know how gene expression is controlled so that genetically identical cells of an individual can differentiate to serve diverse functions.

NCBI Bookshelf. Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science; Ultimately, one wishes to determine how genes—and the proteins they encode—function in the intact organism.

Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy:. Select item s and click on "Add to basket" to create your own collection here entries max. Manual assertion inferred by curator from i. Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i.

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. When one thinks about the genetic makeup of a human, or indeed any organism, it is natural to focus on the protein-coding genes.

Gene Structure and Function

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