mechanical excavation in mining and civil industries pdf

Mechanical Excavation In Mining And Civil Industries Pdf

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Tunnels and underground excavations

This guideline provides practical guidance to manage health and safety risks associated with excavation work. Excavation failures are particularly dangerous because they may occur quickly, limiting the ability of workers and in some cases others nearby to escape, especially if the collapse is extensive. The speed of an excavation collapse increases the risk associated with this type of work. The consequences are significant as the falling earth can bury or crush any person in its path resulting in death by suffocation or internal crush injuries. This guideline does not apply to shafts associated with mining operations, or tunnelling operations, which are regulated under the Health and Safety at Work Mining Operations and Quarrying Operations Regulations the MOQO Regulations.

Mechanical Excavation in Mining and Civil Industries PDF

A vertical opening is usually called a shaft. Tunnels have many uses: for mining ores, for transportation—including road vehicles, trains, subways, and canals—and for conducting water and sewage. Underground chambers, often associated with a complex of connecting tunnels and shafts, increasingly are being used for such things as underground hydroelectric-power plants, ore-processing plants, pumping stations, vehicle parking, storage of oil and water, water-treatment plants, warehouses, and light manufacturing; also command centres and other special military needs. True tunnels and chambers are excavated from the inside—with the overlying material left in place—and then lined as necessary to support the adjacent ground. A hillside tunnel entrance is called a portal ; tunnels may also be started from the bottom of a vertical shaft or from the end of a horizontal tunnel driven principally for construction access and called an adit. So-called cut-and-cover tunnels more correctly called conduits are built by excavating from the surface, constructing the structure, and then covering with backfill. Tunnels underwater are now commonly built by the use of an immersed tube : long, prefabricated tube sections are floated to the site, sunk in a prepared trench, and covered with backfill.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Rock excavation tools disintegrate and remove the rock from boreholes and tunnels by four basic mechanisms: thermal spalling, fusion and vaporization, mechanical stresses, and chemical reactions, as shown in Figure 5. These devices have limited application because most rocks will not thermally spall Maurer, , Melting and vaporization drills utilize high-temperature devices such as lasers or electron beams to melt and vaporize rock Figure 5. These devices have relatively low drilling rates because of the high energy requirements to melt and vaporize rock.

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Mechanical excavation in mining and civil industries, by Nuh Bilgin, Hanifi Copur and Cemal Balci, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group,


Excavation safety

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Excavation Technology for Hard Rock - Problems and Prospects

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3 Comments

  1. Apeles G.

    To browse Academia.

    14.05.2021 at 05:51 Reply
  2. Harry G.

    Hydraulic hammers are most popular mechanical excavation machines in civil excavation projects with their lower investments costs, no secondary breaking.

    16.05.2021 at 02:09 Reply
  3. Taigramavstur

    The secret to streamlined scheduling of mining and civil engineering projects is a solid understanding of the basic concepts of rock cutting mechanics.

    18.05.2021 at 15:24 Reply

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