File Name: air water and land pollution .zip
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics human-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste.
This is because we can see the effects caused by the pollutants and their extent very clearly. It is normal human psychology to believe in what you see firsthand. Our land, on the other hand, is living a nightmare too.
What is Land Pollution?
NCBI Bookshelf. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Environmental pollution has many facets, and the resultant health risks include diseases in almost all organ systems. Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases chapter 19 , respiratory diseases in children and adults chapters 25 and 35 , cancers chapter 29 , neurological disorders chapter 32 , and cardiovascular disease chapter 33 , as well as with a number of chapters dealing with health care issues. Each pollutant has its own health risk profile, which makes summarizing all relevant information into a short chapter difficult.
One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans. Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic intoxication, depending on exposure.
When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of. Essentially, pollution occurs when substances are introduced to the environment that have harmful effects, damaging the quality of land, water, and air. The cause is the accumulation of solid and liquid waste materials that contaminate groundwater and soil. These waste materials are often referred to as municipal solid waste MSW , which includes both hazardous and non-hazardous waste. When waste is deposited onto an area of land, the permeability of the soil formations below the waste can increase or reduce the risk of land pollution.
Part ONE of this book updates the rapid pollution assessment factors and introduces air, water and solid waste inventory and control models.
Land pollution , the deposition of solid or liquid waste materials on land or underground in a manner that can contaminate the soil and groundwater , threaten public health , and cause unsightly conditions and nuisances. MSW includes nonhazardous garbage, rubbish, and trash from homes, institutions e. Garbage contains moist and decomposable biodegradable food wastes e. Hazardous wastes include harmful and dangerous substances generated primarily as liquids but also as solids, sludges, or gases by various chemical manufacturing companies, petroleum refineries , paper mills, smelters, machine shops, dry cleaners , automobile repair shops, and many other industries or commercial facilities. The permeability of soil formations underlying a waste-disposal site is of great importance with regard to land pollution.
Nature, Causes, and Burden of Air and Water Pollution
The land within the boundaries of the United States—covering nearly 2. The use of land, what is applied to or released on it, and its condition change constantly: there are changes in the types and amounts of resources that are extracted, the distribution and nature of land cover types, the amounts and types of chemicals used and wastes managed, and perceptions of the land's value. While human activities on land including food and fiber production, land development, manufacturing, and resource extraction provide multiple economic, social, and environmental benefits to communities, they can also involve the creation, use, or release of chemicals and pollutants that can affect the environment and human health. EPA works with other federal agencies, states, and partners to protect land resources, ecosystems, environmental processes, and uses of land through regulation of chemicals, waste, and pollutants, and through cleanup and restoration of contaminated lands. The complex responsibilities of land management underscore the challenges of collecting data and assessing trends on the state of land. Numerous agencies and individuals have responsibilities for managing and protecting land in the United States. Responsibilities may include protecting resources associated with land e.
Pollutants are assumed to have originated from agricultural fields and to have reached a river attached to suspensa eroded from a watershed. Like the, others, land pollution has also serious conse-, quences on both humans, animals and other living, organisms, and environment.
Фонтейн повернулся к Сьюзан. - Как вы думаете, мисс Флетчер. Сьюзан задумалась. Она чувствовала, что здесь что-то не то, но не могла сообразить, что. Она достаточно хорошо знала Танкадо и знала, что он боготворил простоту.
Самая грязная ванна, какую мне доводилось видеть. И самый мерзкий пляж, покрытый острыми камнями. Этого и ждут от меня читатели. Больные на соседних койках начали приподниматься, чтобы разглядеть, что происходит. Беккер нервно посматривал на медсестру.
Чем ты занята. - Я ничего не говорила, - ответила Сьюзан. Хейл удивленно поднял брови.